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juildford: THE WOODBRIDGE PRESS, Ltd. 




'T*HE following pages do not pretend to contain a 
**• History of Guildford, nor to afford a perfect Guide 
to the town. 

The long-projected History of the place is not yet 
written ; and, although the author of this book has for 
many years hoped to accomplish this task, yet at present 
it is not possible for him to attempt a work of such large 
size and serious importance as a complete history of his 
birthplace would involve. 

This book does not also compete with the popular guides 
to the town, and it will be found that it does not contain 
the items of detailed information that such a book would 
require, for there is nothing in it as to modern dwellings, 
the Post Office, the railway station, or the hotels of the 

It may best be regarded as a series of essays on subjects 
concerning the town, that are but little understood by the 
general resident, side-lights on its history, affording, it is 
believed, some interesting information as to Guildford in 
the past, and some ideas as to the future. 

To the casual visitor, as well as to the resident in the 
place, it is commended, inasmuch as it contains much 
information that can be gleaned from no other work — 
the result of long and patient investigation — and it will 
assist to a better understanding of the old town and its 
buildings. To the student it will, perchance, be found of 
some interest also, although not specially prepared for the 
man of high antiquarian attainments ; and its aim has 
been not so much to narrate the story of the sights seen 
by every visitor as to tell of the buildings that have now 


perished, of habits and worthies of past generations, and 
of the relics of the past that still remain to enlighten the 
resident as to the days of long ago. 

The author desires to express his acknowledgment 
to the Editors of the Surrey Times and the Surrey 
Advertiser for the permission so kindly afforded him of 
reprinting certain articles (now more or less amended and 
modified) that have appeared in past years in their jour- 
nals, and also to many friends who have greatly aided him 
in the compilation of these pages, notably Mr. C. J. 
Barlow, Dr. J. Willis Clark, Mr. G. R. Dennis, Mr. 
H. J. Gill, Mr. F. S. Miller, Mr. Ralph Nevill, Mr. 
Philip Palmer, the Rev. H. R. Ware, Mr. David 
Williamson, Mrs. Butler, and the Misses Russell. 


TV/TANY of the illustrations in this book are taken 
**■ from water-colours of Old Guildford now in the 
possession of Mrs. Butler, of The Firs, Guildford. In 
this lady's possession there is a wonderful series of sketches 
made by various artists, and purchased from time to time 
by her ancestors. The author is indebted to her for 
permission to reproduce the Old Post Office, the 
Bridge, the Interior and Exterior of St. Nicholas' Church, 
the Crypt and its Details, the Coach Office, the Jolly 
Butcher Inn, the Friary (two views) and its Porch, the 
Interior of St. Mary's Church, and Mr. Martyr's House. 

For the sketch of the old cottage where Abbot was born, 
which stood on land now occupied by Messrs. Crooke's 
brewery, he has to thank Mr. Heather. For the use 
of the drawings of the interior and exterior of St. 
Thomas's Hospital he expresses grateful thanks to the 
Misses Russell. These ladies are descendants of that 
ancient family whose attachment to Guildford has always 
been so sincere, and to whom lovers of the old town and 
its historians are so warmly grateful for the histories they 
compiled, the sketches they prepared, and the thousand 
and one art treasures of archaeological importance they 

The view of the Grammar School is from a photo- 
graph taken by an Old Boy, and the portrait of Dr. 
Merriman is given at the request of many Old Boys, who 
unite with the author in claiming him as its greatest and 
best Head Master, and who are grateful for innumerable 
benefits they owe to his excellent instruction, and his firm 
but judicious training during the years in which they 
were his scholars. 


The illustration of Guildford during the Election riots 
is reproduced by kind permission of Sir William Ingram, 
that of the High Street, with its signs, is taken from a 
water colour drawing by an unknown hand, and the 
portrait of Archbishop Abbot is from the original oil 
painting in the possession of the author. 

The photographs of the Town Plate and of the Coun- 
cil Chamber are by Mr. W. Shawcross, of Guildford. 

All the remaining illustrations — the views of the Town 
and Cock Pit, the Traders' Tokens, the Handbills, the 
Playing Card, the Theatre Bill, the Telegraph Form, and 
the Race Card — are from the author's own collection ; 
but to all those persons for whose assistance he is 
indebted he tenders a very hearty expression of his 



Chapter I. — Some Notes on the Origin and 

History of Guildford i 

II. — The Government of the Town, 
the Town Hall, the Corpora- 
tion Arms, Plate and Insignia 
of Office io 

III. — Guildford Money 42 

IV. — The Dominican Friary 65 

V. — The Grammar School, its Chained 
Library, and the Earliest 
Mention of Cricket 90 

VI. — The Town Churches i i i 

VII. — The Two Ancient Crypts in the 

High Street 131 

VIII. — The Castle and the Caverns 140 

IX. — Abbot's Hospital, and the Wool 

Trade 148 

X. — Guildford Books 159 

XI. — The Guildford c Friends ' and 
their History : a Glance at 
the Days of Persecution 168 

XII. — Elections and Riots 184 



XIII. — The Guildford Institute and its 

History 200 

XIV. — Guildford Fifty Years Ago 207 

XV. — St. Thomas's Hospital 220 

XVI. — The Guildford Sword 223 

XVII. — The ( Daughter' Town of Guil- 
ford' in the United States 230 

Appendix — (a) Will of Robert Beckingham, 
Founder of the Grammar School, (b) 
Will of Elizabeth Beckingham, his 
wife, (c) Abstract of the Will ot 
Thomas Polsted. (d) The original 
Foundation Deed of the Grammar 
School 241 


The High Street of Guildford, circa 1730, 

from a water colour drawing 
The South-West Prospect of Guildford, 

I 73^if rom tfie engraving by Buck 
The Town Bridge, 1822, from a water 

colour drawing by Hassell 
The Interior of the Council Chamber in 

the Town Hall, 1895, from a photo- 

graph by W. Shawcross 
The Corporation Plate, from a photograph 

by W. Shawcross 
The Borough of Guildford in ^739y from 

the engraved Ichnography 
The Town Token 
The Token of Simon Crane . 
The Tokens of Charles Hanby, John 

King, Edward Lee . 
The Tokens of Henry Lee, Nicholas 


The Token of John May 

The Token of Abdiah Martin 

The Token of Joseph Netles 

The Token of John Remnant 

The Token of Daniell Sarlle . 

The Token of John Smallpeece 

The Token of James Snelling 

The Token of Thomas Wilmot 

The Postman's Token . 

The Friary, circa iJ0$ y from a water colou 

drawing said to have been done for the 
Colwall Family . 

Facing 4 

„ 18 










Facing 84 



The Porch of the Friary, 1816, from a 

water colour drawing . . . Facing 86 

The Friary in 1816, when used as Cavalry 

Barracks, from a water colour drawing „ 88 

The Back of the Grammar School, before 
Restoration, from a photograph taken in 
the Garden in 1880 „ 102 

The Great Head Master, Rev. H. G. 
Merriman, D.D., 1 823-1 887, Head 
Master of the Grammar School, 1859- 
1874 ....... 104 

The North-West Prospect of Guildford, 
1759, from the engraving by John 
Russell . . . . . . ,,114 

Exterior of St. Nicholas' Church, 1834, 

from a water colour drawing . . „ 120 

Interior of St. Nicholas' Church, 1827, from 

a water colour drawing by Hassell . „ 122 

Interior of St. Mary's Church, 1827, from 

a water colour drawing by Hassell . ,,126 

The North Crypt under the Angel Inn, 
circa 1 840, from a water colour drawing 
by H. Prosser . . . . . ,,132 

Details of the South Crypt under the 
Savings' Bank, 1838, from a water 
colour drawing by H. Prosser . . „ 136 

Ancient Monastic Key found on the site 
of the ' Friary Fyshe Crosse,' opposite 
to the two Crypts, and believed to 
belong to one of them . 

Quaint Old Playing Card found in the 
Castle ...... 

General View of Guildford, circa 1690, 
from an engraving in the c Royal Maga- 
zine '...... 








The Cottage where Archbishop Abbot 

was born, from a water colour drawing, 

circa 1834 .... 
George Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury 

from the original painting, circa 1 6 1 8 

by Cornells Janssens . 
Guildford High Street in an Election Riot 

from an old print 
The Stage-Coach Office, North Street 

IjSOyfrom a water colour drawing 
The Post Office, corner of Swan Lane 

1840, from a water colour drawing by 

H. Prosser . 
Receipt for the First Telegram sent from 

Guildford .... 

Old Theatre Bill .... 
The Cock Pit, from a sketch . 
One of the last Race Cards issued at 

Guildford .... 
A Guildford Handbill . 
Trade Card of the noted Gingerbread 

Baker ...... 

The Jolly Butcher Inn, Black Horse Lane 

(now Chapel Street), 1839, from a 

water colour drawing 
Mr. Martyr's House, now 25, High Street, 

from a water colour drawing by H. 

Prosser, 1789 
Exterior of the Hospital of St. Thomas, 

showing also the Maypole, March 

15, Ijqi, from a water colour draw- 
ing by J, Russell, R.J. 
Interior of the Hospital of St. Thomas, 

March 15, ljqi, from a water colour 

drawing by J. Russell, R.J. 


Facing 148 

„ 158 
h 184 
„ 210 

„ 212 

2I 3 




Facing 2 I 8 





»! 224. 

Chapter I 


' I *HERE has been a good deal of discussion as to the 
-*■ meaning of the word Guildford, and the usual ex- 
planation that has been given connects it with the 
existence of an ancient trade guild governing the place, 
and with a ford over the river Wey running at the foot 
of the High Street. 

There have been other explanations of the meaning 
Df the word, and one writer has suggested that it was 
Driginally Gavelford, and that it took its name from a 
little island or heap of sand dividing the stream of the 
r iver Wey into two branches here. It is probable, how- 
ever, that neither of these explanations is the accurate 
3ne, and it is more likely that the town has derived its 
lame from an ancient name for the river. 

It seems to be possible that the river was at one time 
:alled the Gil or the Guilou, and that the town took its 
lame from that. Mr. Ralph Nevill, the latest writer 
>vrio has considered this somewhat difficult question, has 
:arefully worked out in volume xvii. of the Surrey 
Archaeological Society's proceedings his theory as to the 
origin of the name, and it is probable that this theory 
s the correct one. He points out that there was a 
'iver Guilou now called the Wiley in the time of King 
Alfred, and it seems possible that our river may have 
Dome the same name, and that the change of the place 
lame from Gil or Guilou to Wey may have taken place 
n connection with the existence of the well-known road 


which passes over the river, and which was known as 
the Ancient Way, and later on as the Pilgrims' Way. 

The town must have had a name long before it 
had a guild, but, as we shall see later on, the story of its 
guild is very closely interwoven with its history. The 
earliest reference to the town occurs in the will of King 
Alfred, a.d. 900, and he bequeathed it to Ethelwald his 
nephew, on whose rebellion or death, which happened 
about five years afterwards, it reverted to the Crown. 
It was royal demesne at the time of the Norman Con-' 
quest, and is mentioned in Domesday Book, but, although , 
there must certainly have been a church in Gildeford at 
that time, no such building is referred to in the record. 

Previous to the time of Ethelwald, it would seem, 
probable that the town was part of the personal estate 
of the Anglo-Saxon monarch, for, had it belonged to the j 
Crown, it could hardly have been the object of a j 
testamentary gift. 

The only important historical event connected with 
the town in Anglo-Saxon times is the massacre of the 
Danes by Godwin Earl of Kent, which is said to have 
taken place at Gild Down, near Gildeford, in th< 
eleventh century. 

It would seem probable that the original hamlet con 
stituting the town was clustered round the banks of th< J 
river, especially on the west side of it, and part of tha ' 
which is now known as St. Nicholas' parish probabl 
represents the original Gildeford. 

On the other side of the river were the Castle and a! 
its outlying buildings, and the town on that side at firsl 
probably consisted of the residences of those who wer I 
attached to the Castle or tenants of it. 

The mound on which the Castle keep now stanc 
was in all probability an Anglo-Saxon fortified hil.l 
surrounded by a ditch. Whether or not it had an 1 


connection with Roman work is difficult to decide 
but some very fine Roman coins (Sesterii) have been 
found just outside the present keep, and also some 
remains both of glass and pottery distinctly Roman in 
their origin. Several of these coins are in the possession 
of the writer. Very probably the mound was not 

• wholly artificial, but partly natural, and strengthened by 
artificial earth-works. It has been pointed out by Mr. 

■ Maiden that it was hardly possible to build a solid 
Norman keep upon the top of a mound that was wholly 
artificial, as the weight would have been too great for the 

■ insecure foundation. The keep was probablv erected 
in the time of Henry II., but part of the' outlying 
portions of the Castle may have been of an even earlier 

Not very far from the keep stands the tower of St. 
5 Mary's Church, by far the oldest part of that structure, 
and going back most certainly to the eleventh century, 
1 if not to a far more remote period. 

As has been pointed out by Mr. Ware, this tower is 

! the work of Englishmen, and not of the French masons 

rwho came over with William the Conqueror, but 

whether it preceded the Conquest, or was erected by 

• Saxon masons after that time, is not easy to determine 
lit seems probable that it is the oldest building in Guild- 
ford, and that, if any church was originally attached to 
it, such a building was of wattle or of timber, and not 
of stone. The presence of the two windows in its 

'north and south walls, with their characteristic Saxon 
double splay, proves that this tower was lighted from 

'the open air long before any other part of the church 
was built. 

The earliest known church of St. Nicholas on the 
west side of the river is said to have had a round tower, 
and this tower is described in one place as of immemorial 


antiquity. It is just possible, therefore, that in amongst 
the little cottages which nestled at the foot of the river, 
and which constituted the old town, there may have 
been an Anglo-Saxon church on the site now occupied 
by St. Nicholas' Church. 

Certain it is that in the twelfth century, on Feb. 3rd, 
the festival of St. Blaise (the patron saint of the 
town as the patron of wool-combers), St. Nicholas' was 
considered to be the church of the guild, and ' at the 
church nigh unto the river, where the fulling took 
place ' the Gild-Merchant made its corporate com- 
munion. Probably the names Bury Street, Bury Fields 
and Bury Lane have their origin in the existence near 
this spot of the ancient borough of Gildeford. 

Outside the Castle walls, at the extreme eastern end 
of the High Street, there must have grown up a small 
community of traders, who had settled down under the 
shelter of the fortress. For them also a place of worship 
was necessary, but we have no reference respecting 
Holy Trinity Church prior to the thirteenth century, 
when the advowson of the parish was given to the 
Priory of Merton by William Testard, Lord of the 
Manor of Poyle, who died about 1230. Two hundred 
and fifty years later we have the record of a chantry 
founded in this church. 

It will be seen, therefore, that the town originally 
consisted of three distinct settlements ; the Castle, with 
all its outlying buildings, covering several acres ot 
ground, and occupying the rising land above the river, 
with its keep standing on the great mound in the centre 
and dominating the place ; the little cluster of cottages 
round by the river, in which in all probability the woo 
and cloth trade, which gave Guildford a later importance 
originally commenced ; and the trading community at 
the east end outside the Castle walls. 



In the will of John Abbot, 1654, he bequeathed 20s. 
to the poor of the upper parish in Gildeford, the same 
amount to the poor of the middle parish, and 10s. to the 
poor of the lower parish, and these titles for the three 
parishes are still in use, and probably have reference to 
the three-fold history of the place. 

The earliest houses now remaining in the centre ot 
the High Street were probably built from such portions 
of the Castle as were gradually destroyed, and from the 
chalk excavated from the quarries in which Henry III. 
kept the wine produced from the vineyards on his 
estates in Gascony and Poitou. The order is still in 
existence which he issued to the Sheriff of Surrey, who 
was probably his agent, in the thirty-fourth year of his 
reign, to sell forthwith the King's wines that were at 
Gildeford, to permit no others to be sold in Surrey until 
these were disposed of, and to pay the proceeds of the 
sale into the King's wardrobe account. 

In the time of the Conqueror a good deal of the land 
in Gildeford was granted by him to Robert Testard, and 
his family is said to have been responsible for the erection 
of the part of St. Mary's Church which is later than the 
tower, and the original church of Holy Trinity. 

Thomas de la Puile, who gives his name to the Poyle 
Estate, the Poyle Charity, and Pewley Hill, was in 
possession of the land in the time of Henry III., and his 
family and the Testards appear to have been the chief 
owners under the Crown in the thirteenth and fourteenth 

The only other buildings of really mediaeval date 
which the town contains beside the Castle and St. Mary's 
Church are the two crypts in the centre of the High 
Street, and to all these three buildings fuller reference 
will presently be made. 

It has already been pointed out that the town of 


Gildeford was royal estate, but the only evidence that w( 
have as to the residence of Anglo-Saxon monarchs h 
Gildeford consists in the coins which were struck in th< 
place, and which bear the names of Ethelred II., Cnut, 
Harthacnut, and Harold II. The same series extend* 
also to William I. and William II., but the earliest 
monarch of the Norman line who we know for certain 
lived at Guildford was Henry II., who, shortly after his 
first coronation, which was on the 20th of December, 
1 154, enclosed a considerable tract of land on the north 
side of Gildeford Down, and converted it into a park. 

Here he kept Christmas in 11 86, probably residing at 
his palace in the park rather than at the Castle, although 
it is quite possible that the mansion house in the park was 
not erected until the time of Henry III. 

Here it was also that he gave audience to the two 
Legates sent by Pope Urban III. to assist at the investi- 
ture of Prince John with the kingdom of Ireland, and 
here also it was that the Prior and Convent of St. Swithin 
in Winchester presented their complaint against their 
Bishop, who had deprived them of three dishes at every 
meal out of the thirteen allowed them by their founder, 
on which occasion the monks were dismissed by the King 
with a severe reproof for their excess. 

King John was often at Gildeford, the two chief 
occasions being the Easter of 1199 and Christmas in 
1200, and on the latter occasion he kept his Christmas at 
the place 'with uncommon splendour and magnificence' 
with his newly-married wife Isabella of Angouleme. He 
visited the town altogether no less than nineteen times in 
eleven different years. 

In the time of Henry III. we know that there was a 
royal residence in this place, and on the 4th April, 1240, 
the Sheriff of Surrey was directed to repair the glass 
windows of the King's house and chapel at Gildeford, 


which had been broken by a storm, and to restore the 
damaged roofs. 

In 1246 there are still further references to the King's 
palace, as instructions were ordered for the erection of a 
nursery for the King's son Edward, not yet seven years 
old, which was to have bars at its windows, and below it 
was to be a room for the King's noble pages, with 
windows. Orders were also issued for the erection of a 
room for the Queen, to have two marble pillars 
in it, and glass windows, which were to be made 
to open and shut, and to have wooden shutters for pro- 
tection inside. 

In 1255 °i^ s amounting to over £100 were presented 
to the King's treasurer for payment for these various 
rooms and the chapels, and the wainscot oak with which 
they were lined. At that time we hear of some decora- 
tions in the rooms, carvings of animals for the King's 
seat, and a painting of the story of Dives and Lazarus at 
the opposite end of the King's dining-hall. It does not 
seem possible to state with any certainty whether these 
various rooms, with their glass windows, were for the 
Castle or for the King's mansion in the park, but 
I it seems generally likely that they were for the latter 

This decorative work was executed by William of 
Florence, the King's painter, who was paid 6d. a day for 
his wages by the surveyor for the King's manor of Gilde- 
ford. He appears to have also painted the fore-covering 
of the altar in the great chapel, and to have decorated 
the rooms for Eleanor, the wife of Edward, the eldest 
son of the King. 

At about this time we have recorded the death at 
Gildeford of Prince Henry, eldest son of Henry III., and 
following it the establishment of the Dominican Friars in 
the place, to which reference will be made later on. 

■ ! 


Edward II. occasionally resided in Gildeford, and two 
of the charters granted to the town in the eighteenth 
year of his reign were dated at this place. 

Edward III. was here in 133 1, and from Gildeford 
issued the summons to the Archbishop of Canterbury to 
attend a Council at Westminster. He also spent Easter 
of 1336 in the town, and Christmas in 1337, 1340, and 
1347. Again, we find him here in 1366, and on the 
1st of October that year he demised the town of Gilde- 
ford with its rentals to the ruling body of the place, ex- 
pressly reserving for himself the park, palace and Castle. 

On more than one occasion Henry VI. was in resi- 
dence in the place, and twice at least Edward IV. was 
here, in 1479 and in 1482. 

Henry VIII. and his household resided in Gildeford 
on more than one occasion, and here it was that Charles 
Brandon Duke of Suffolk, Grand Master of the King's 
Household, died in 1546. 

Edward VI. came here in the summer of 1 5 50, and 
again in 1552, very shortly before his death, and Queen 
Elizabeth is believed to have visited the town in about 
1580, on the occasion of her presenting the Mayor's 

Probably by the time the Tudor kings came to Gilde- 
ford the old palace in the park had fallen into disuse, 
possibly into decay, and the buildings at one time occu- 
pied by the Dominican Friars were adapted for royal 
residence. There it was certainly that Henry VIII. 
stayed, and in Gildeford, in 1538, one of the decrees for 
the dissolution of the monastic houses was signed.. On 
that occasion Thomas Cromwell, the Secretary of State, 
was lodged at St. Nicholas' Rectory, as the whole of the 
Friary buildings were taken up by the King and his suite. 

The early Stuart kings visited Gildeford on more than 
one occasion, Charles II. especially being received with 


great enthusiasm on his visit in September, 1660, when 
the Corporation presented him with a service of plate, 
decorated the town profusely, and entertained him at a 
suitable banquet. 

George IV., as Prince Regent, used to drive through 
the town on his way to Brighton, and for his convenience 
the alteration was made in the length of St. Mary's 
Church, in order that his carriage might have room to 
pass easily. 

Queen Victoria, on more than one occasion, drove 
through the town before her accession to the throne, but, 
after she was Queen, her visits were confined to a sojourn 
for a short time at the station in the Royal train while 
on the way to the Isle of Wight. 

Of the old palace in the park nothing now remains. 
An archway and some of its stonework are believed to be 
incorporated in the farmhouse of Guildford Manor Farm, 
where the moat still exists, and it is stated that in a large 
field adjacent to that farmhouse the line of the foundations 
of the old palace can be determined when the field is full 
of ripe corn by reason of an alteration in the colour of the 
ear of the corn growing where the building originally stood. 

The later palace, formed out of the old Friary, has 
ilso disappeared, and only the Castle keep remains as 
evidence of the buildings which were occupied by a 
long line of English monarchs from the time of Ethelred, 
978, down to the Tudor sovereigns. 

Chapter II 




' I A HE government of the town dates back to a period 
of very remote antiquity. 

It is known as a Corporation by Prescription, and has 
many ancient charters, the first charter on record being the 
one granted by Henry III. in 1256. This placed the 
government in the hands of a body called the approved 
men of Gildeford, but it is probable that a corporation, 
as we now term it, was in existence in the town long 
before this date. 

A charter was granted to Kingston-upon-Thames by 
Henry III. in the fortieth year of his reign, that is to 
say, a year earlier than the Guildford charter, and in it 
occurs the following clause : ' We have also granted to 
the same men of Kyngeston that they may have their 
Gild-Merchant in their town as they formerly had it, 
and as our men of Gildeford have, and that they may 
use it together with their other liberties and laws and 
customs which they have in their town aforesaid, as they 
have used it in our time and in the times of our pre- 
decessors Kings of England.' 

It would therefore appear that the Gild-Merchant, 
or local governing body, was in existence in Guildford 
long before 1255, and was of sufficient importance to be 
taken as a model when the Kingston charter was granted. 
It is clear also that in the charter of Henry III. the juris- 
diction of the approved men is spoken of as already 

















£ I 


. existing, and is not created. The ancient name of Gild- 
Vlerchant continued in use to the 18th century, and 
i summons to the Sergeants-at-Mace is in the author's 
)ossession dated May 16th, 1 78 1, by which they are 
equired to give notice to the magistrates and bailiffs of 
juildford that a i Gild-Merchant or Common Hall will 
)e held in the Gild-Hall to select a Town Clerk in the 
00m of Mr. John Martyr, deceased.' 

The head of the Gild-Merchant was for some 
generations called the Seneschal, and by that title he 
s mentioned in the charter of Edward III. of 1366. 
immediately after that date, however, the name of Mayor 
*vas assumed, the first person styling himself Mayor being 
Robert Chesenel in 1377. The title does not, however, 
officially appear until 1488, when Henry VII. in his 
zharter declared the governing body to be a Corporation 
jnder the name and style of the Mayor and Approved 
Men of Gildeford. 

The charter of 1686 styles the Corporation by the 
title still used, the Mayor, Aldermen, and Common 
Council, and under this Jacobean charter the Corpor- 
ation continued its existence down to Christmas 1835, 
when the Municipal Reform Act came into force. 

The list of Seneschals governing the town commences 
in 1 36 1 and extends to 1376. It embraces three names 
only, Walter Wodeland, who was Seneschal in 1361, 2, 
3, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 1 37 1 ; Peter Semer, who reigned in 
1365 and 1370, and Henry Collas, who held the position 
in 1369, 1372, 3, 4, 5, and 6. 

From 1377 commences the list of Mayors, and it ex- 
tends with but few breaks down to the present time. 
Between 1377 and 141 2 the names of the Mayors have 
been lost, and again in 1429 and 1430 we have no 
names in the record, but with those exceptions the 
list is complete. 


The story of the change of government under the 
Municipal Reform Act is a somewhat interesting one, ! 
and the date is sufficiently near to that of our own time : 
for it to be recorded in detail. 

This history of the first few days' existence of the ' 
Corporation, as fixed in Sch. A., Municipal Reform Act j 
(5 and 6 William IV., cap. 76), is taken from some old 
papers in the author's possession. The Corporation j 
sitting under the Jacobean charter ceased to exist 
on Christmas Day, 1835, and the following persons I 
were its officials when it quietly passed out of existence. « 
There were eight Aldermen, from whom the Mayor 
was annually chosen on the first Monday after St. 
Michael's Day. The Mayor that year was Mr. John 
Rand ; the Aldermen — George Waugh, Charles Brooker, 
William Sparkes, Anthony Lee, Joseph Haydon, James 
Stedman and William Elkins. 

There was then the body of Bailiffs, undefined as to r 
number, but rarely exceeding twenty-five. They 
formed the grand jury, and a fresh member was added to 
them every year, selected from qualified persons in the I 
borough, who was called ' the Bailiff,' or ' the acting 
Bailiff,' and was the ostensible Lord of the Manor. 

This Bailiff (poor man !) was expected to feast all the , 
rest of the Corporation at his expense four times during ' 
his year of office, or else to pay ^50 ; or, if he desired to jt| 
escape the duties of Bailiff altogether, to pay ^90. 
Russell tells us that, in addition to these four feasts to 
the Corporation, there was one given by the Mayor to 
the High Steward, Recorder, Aldermen and Bailiffs 
about Christmas, a public supper by the Mayor on the 
evening of his inauguration, and a public dinner in the 
autumn. Still, however, the list of feasts is incomplete, 
for, in addition, the Town Clerk annually feasted the 
Corporation, and the High Steward did the same. 


'i nc High Steward in 1835 was Lord Grantley, the 
Htan. Geo. Chappie Norton was Recorder, and Mr. 
Joseph Hockley, Town Clerk and Coroner. 

Mr. John Chennell was the last Guildford acting 
Bailiff, Mr. Edward Day Filmer was Hall-warden, and 
he Bailiffs were thirty in number. Their names were : 
Win. Russell, Edmund Elkins, Wm. Hy. Slater, Jno. 
Vlatthews, William King, Edw. Day Filmer, Thos. 
Vincent, Thos. Chennell, Jesse Boxall jun., Thos 
3 iggott, Jno. Cooke, Jno. Weaver, Geo. Mackrell 
Wealds, Jno. Palmer, Wm. Elkins, Richard Fathers, 
^Villiam Lockwood, Wm. Taylor, Jno. Leggatt, Henry 
3 iper, Jas. Stovold, Thos. Taunton, Thos. Williams, 
Thos. Charrott, Benj. K. Finnimore, Geo. Austen, 
jeo. Foster, William Fibbens, Edmund Nicholls, Jno. 

The Beadle, Coalmeter and Town Crier was Timothy 
Lovett. The two Sergeants-at-Mace were Jno. Jeffries 
ind James Hutton, the Tasters of Bread and Ale were 
fohn Pannell and John Edward Turner, the Tasters of 
Fish and Flesh were Richard Jarlett and Hy. Linfield. 
The police force consisted of two Head Constables, 
Danl. Marshall jun. and Richard Fathers jun. ; two 
Tything-men for Holy Trinity, Thomas P. Edwards 
md Henry Fuller ; two for St. Mary's, John Kettle and 
Philip Pickett ; and one for S. Nicholas', James Morris ; 
:ogether with the Tasters and Sergeants above referred 
:o, and two Night- Watchmen, Charles Mandeville and 
fas. Wilkins. 

This, then, was the old chartered Corporation of 
Gruildford that ceased to exist on Christmas Day, 1835. 

During the few previous days there had been some 
ixcitement in the town in connection with the nomina- 
tion of candidates for the new Council. A meeting was 
held, December 14, at the George Inn, and a resolution 


passed, ( That it is the undoubted right of every burgess 
to select for himself from the burgess-roll the names oi 
those persons he would wish to be Councillors for the 
town.' The entire burgess-roll was then called over, and 
54 persons were put in nomination. 

A fresh meeting was then called, also at the George 
Inn, for Tuesday, December 22, and, from the 54 
nominated, twelve were selected by slips of paper bearing 
the name preferred being deposited in a box, and those 
having the largest number of votes were by this ballot 
selected. The names selected by this meeting, which 
included the Liberals of the day, were : Edward Da) 
Filmer, Geo. Waugh, William Chennell, Geo. Foster 
Charles Booker, Jno. Lockwood, William Mills, Jas 
Smart, Edmund Nicholls, Thos. Vanner, Benj. K 
Finnimore, Jno. Wiblen. 

Meantime, the Conservatives also had been at work 
and upon the same evening a meeting was held at th< 
White Hart under the presidency of Mr. James Stedman 
which meeting, we are told by the handbill, was ; 
' numerous and respectable one,' and twelve more bur 
gesses were selected and c respectfully recommended (with 
out any attempt at dictation) to the support of th« 
burgesses at large.' 

Their names were : Joseph Haydon, Joseph Weak 
Anthony Lee, Thomas Williams, John Smallpeio 
(solicitor), Wm. H. Slater, Wm. E. Elkins, John Palmer 
John Leggatt, Thomas Taunton, Wm. Taylor, Cassteel 
Cooper. The election took place December 26, 1835 
and twenty-three went to the poll ; nine of the Con 
servative nominees were elected and three of thos 
nominated by the Whigs at the George. The figure 
were as follows : 

Lee (C) 212 Taylor (C) ... 18; 

Haydon (C) ... 200 Williams (C) ... ijj 


Elkins (C) 
Smallpeice (C) 
Leggatt (C) 
Booker (L) 

190 Palmer (C) 

... 187 Slater (C)... 

... 187 Waugh (L) 

... 184 Nicholls(L) 

The above were elected. 



J 43 

Cooper (C) 
Lockwood (L) 
Vanner (L) 
Wiblen (L) 
Smart (L) 




9 1 

Finnimore (L) ... 143 

Filmer (L) ... 141 

Weale (C) ... 140 

Taunton (C) ... 139 

Foster (L) ... 137 

Chennell (L) ... 128 

[1 The first meeting of the newly constituted Council 
was on January 1st, 1836, and at this meeting Mr. John 
Smallpeice was elected Mayor, and the four Aldermen 
were selected. Messrs. James Stedman and William 
Sparkes were elected from outside the Council, and Mr. 
Joseph Haydon from inside, and the newly-elected Mayor 
was also enrolled as an Alderman. 

There were then two vacancies in the Council, and 
upon Monday, January 4th, 1836, another meeting was 
held at the White Hart, under the presidency of Alder- 
man Stedman, and Messrs. Joseph Weale and Thomas 
Taunton, two of the three defeated Conservative candi- 
dates, were again nominated and recommended to the 
burgesses. Mr. Taunton that same evening issued his 
address, and in it stated that at the previous election he 
had not done any canvassing, and the support he received 
encouraged him to again offer himself. The Liberals 
nominated Mr. Edward D. Filmer and Mr. George 
Foster, and the election took place on January 8th, 1836, 
when the result was as follows : Weale 191, Taunton 
188 (elected) ; Filmer 123, Foster ill. 

Again the Council met, and elected Joseph Hockley as 
Town Clerk and as Town Bailiff, or Lord of the Manor, 


John Rand as Treasurer, and re-elected the Lord High 
Steward, Mace-bearers and Beadle. Richard Jarlet was 
appointed Chief Constable, with eight men : Douglas, 
Wilson, Furlonger, Punk, Seabrook, Mandeville, Jeffries 
and Wilkins ; but still there was to be another contested 
election to make the Council complete. 

For the third time the town had all the excitement of 
a contest, and this one lasted two days, resulting in the j 
election as Auditors of Francis Piggott (C), by 101 votes, 
and John Lockwood (L), by 67 votes ; and as Assessors 
John Smallpeice, sadler (C), 96 votes, and John Weaver 
(L), 69 votes. 

All these elections had caused enthusiasm, and some of 
the old Bailiffs protested in an affidavit that they < did go 
in fear of their lives on account of the mob.' Previously, 
therefore, the old Council swore in special constables. 
On October 25th lists were got up of persons eligible for 
this position, and on November 1st, 1835, 24 persons 
were solemnly sworn in c for the preservation of the 
public peace, the protection of the inhabitants, and 
security of property within the borough.' These con- 
stables were called out at each election, and we trust that 
the poor Bailiffs who went in fear of their lives were duly 
protected. Lord Grantley's holograph letter, dated fronr« 
Grantley Hall, Ripon, January 23rd, 1836, and express- 
ing very gracefully his thanks for the honour conferred 
upon him by the new Council, is in existence, anc 
is an interesting specimen of the florid rhetorical style ir 
vogue at the time. 

On November 1st, 1836, took place the first ordinary 
election of Town Council. Eight candidates cam* 
forward : Messrs. Palmer, Slater and King from the 
Council, and Messrs. Lockwood, Foster, Filmer anc 
Austen from the Liberals, and Williams from the Con- 
servatives. Lockwood was the only Liberal who got in 


:he election resulting in the return of Messrs. Palmer, 
Lockwood, King and Slater. 

His Majesty at this time appointed four Magistrates — 
VIessrs. William Newland, Charles Booker, Thomas 
3aydon and George Waugh ; and these, with the ex- 
V/layor, Mr. Smallpeice, and the Mayor for 1836, 
\nthony Lee, constituted the Borough Bench. 

The Magistrates appointed George Shurlock Smallpeice 
s their first Clerk. John Lockwood having been success- 
ul in entering the Council, Edward D. Filmer took his 
lace as Auditor. Two additional policemen were taken 
n as Day Police — Clark and Wilson. Mr. John 
veggatt jun. and Mr. William Chennell were appointed 
^orn Porters, Mr. Jos. Hockley sen., Coroner, and his 
hi Lord of the Manor, or Bailiff, and Mr. John Jeffrey 
ecame Hall-keeper. 

We have now detailed the appointment of every member 
nd officer of the Corporation'as it sat under the Municipal 
Leform Act, save the Recorder ; but, as he was appointed 
y the Crown, the office was not disturbed by the Act, 
ad the occupant of it remained at his post, the last sur- 
Ivor in office of the old government of the town under 
le charter of James II. With the old Corporation dis- 
Dpeared many old abuses and faults. With them went 
so many of the feasts, including that provided by the 
"own Clerk, and possibly the present Town Clerk 
;joices thereat. 

The Town Hall, or Guild Hall, as it was original|y 
died, is first mentioned in the town records, so far as 
in be seen, in the thirtieth year of Elizabeth, as in that year 
ie garden at the back of it was enclosed on both sides 
ith stone walls made of flints, which cost c the sum of 
n'rty pounds or thereaboute.' 

In the following year the hall was enlarged and made 
nger at the north ende, and the 'queene's armes and the 



armes ot this towne sett in the windowe att the north 
ende.' In 1683 an ancient market-house which stood 
across the street was taken down, and, according to the 
town records, the present town hall was then erected. 

It is probable, however, that the front only of the 
existing building was then erected, and part of the old 
Guild Hall, dating back to the time of Elizabeth, was 
left in situ. There certainly seems to be evidence that 
part of the building is a good deal older than the time of 
Charles II. The list of persons who subscribed towards 
rebuilding the town hall is still preserved, and it may be I 
interesting to record it. 

Arthur Onslow, of West Clandon, Esq. 
Richard Onslow, Esq., his eldest Sonne 
Morgan Randyll, of Chilworth, Esq. 
John Terry, of Guldeford, Gent. 
John Holland, of Guldeford, Clerke - 
John Graile, Gent., Mr. of the Free-Sch. 
Richard Noble, Gent., of Stoke - 
George Bendbrick, of Guldeford - 
John Child, Gent., Mayor of thesd Towne 
John Wight, Esq. ______ 

John Martyr, Gent., one of the Magistrates 
Henry Flutter, Gent., one other Magistrate 
Edward Ford, Gent., one other Magistrate 
John Hill, Gent., one other Magistrate - 
Leonard Childe, Gent., Towne-Clerke - 
Henry Saunders, one of the Order of 
Bayliffs within the said Towne - - 


































229 o 

£ 5 


There must have been a hall in the town in which 
the Gild-Merchant met long before the time of Eliza- 
beth, as in the time of Edward III. we read of the two 
Parliamentary representatives of the town making a 
donation of 13s. 4d. for the repair of the 'Gildeford Gild 
Hall.' We still possess, however, a record of the enlarge- 
ment just referred to, as Queen Elizabeth's arms even yet 
appear in the north window over the Mayor's chair. 

The very handsome clock which projects from the 
front of the town hall has a most interesting history 
connected with it. It was made by a certain John 
Aylward in 1683, the very year of the erection of the 
front elevation. Aylward was what is known in Guild- 
ford as a foreigner, that is to say he came from another 
part of England, and desired to set up in his trade in the 
town, but the permission to do so was refused him 
by the Gild-Merchant, as he was not a Guildford 

Unable to pay the necessary fine or obtain admission 

to the town under other terms, he retired just outside 

:he borough, and erected on the Great Mount (now 

:alled Mount Street) a work-shop ; where he made the 

:own clock and then presented it to the governing body, 

ind so acquired his freedom. He appears a little later 

:o have settled in the Higli Street in premises now 

Kcupied by Mr. Perkins, and there for many years he 

worked as a clock-maker. One of his lantern clocks 

vvith the usual long pendulum and ropes with weights, 

md with but one hand, is in the possession of Mr. J. H. 

3 etrie, of Eastbourne, and is signed c John Aylward in 

Gfiltford fecit.' Another somewhat similar clock was at 

)ne time at Lumley Castle, but these are the only two 

examples of Aylward's work known to the author. 

It seems probable that the two pictures by Sir Peter 
Lely, representing Charles II. and James II., which hang 


in the town hall, were presented to the town at about 
the time of the rebuilding. 

There is no record of how these two exceedingly fine 
paintings came into the possession of the Corporation, 
but in 1674 John, Duke of Lauderdale, was created Earl 
of Guildford, and, as he is known to have commissioned 
several pictures from Sir Peter Lely, it seems probable 
that he presented these works to the town from which 
he derived his title, that they might be hung in the hall. 
The similar portraits representing Queen Mary and 
William III., the former of which has been ascribed by 
Mr. Whitburn to John Riley, may very possibly have 
come to the town from another Lord Guildford. 

The Duke of Lauderdale died without issue, and 
Francis North in 1685 succeeded to the barony of 
Guildford, which had been granted to his father two 
years before. He is known to have made the town a 
present of some money, and probably these two pictures 
accompanied the gift. 

In the Council Chamber upstairs there appear over 
the mantel-piece representations of the two heraldic 
achievements successively borne by the Corporation 
of Guildford. 

Previous to 1483, the town used the arms of St, 
Edward Confessor, a blue shield bearing upon it a cross 
moline between five martlets all in gold. It is not at 
all clear as to why the town used these arms ; whether it 
was merely to commemorate the residence of the King, 
or whether it was by special grant, cannot now be told, 
but there is a record in Heralds' College dated 141c 
which mentions the arms of Guildford as those of Edward 
the Confessor 'used by this Gild-Merchant.' In 1483 
the new grant of arms was made, and a very elaborate 
coat was given to the town. In heraldic language it 
should thus be described : — 


' Sable, on a mount vert a castle with two towers 
embattled, on each tower a spire surmounted with a ball 
from the battlements, between the towers a tower triple- 
towered all argent and charged with an escutcheon 
quarterly of France and England ; under the battlements 
of the castle two roses in fesse or, the port proper, charged 
on the centre with a key and portcullised both gold, on 
the mount before the port a lion couchant gardant of the 
fourth, on each side the castle in fesse a wool-pack of the 
third paleways, the base of the field water proper.' 

It is very seldom that in representations of this coat 
of arms it is found correctly drawn, although the heraldic 
description is a very clear and definite one. The coat 
of arms which in quite recent times has been erected 
over the new cattle-market is, for example, very in- 
accurate, and it seems a pity that more care has not been 
taken in reproductions of this elaborate heraldic achieve- 
ment to render each detail with accuracy. 

The connection of the Sovereign with the town is set 
forth in the royal escutcheon on the castle, while the 
integrity of that fortress is also marked by heraldic 
symbols, but perhaps the most interesting features of 
the coat of arms to Guildford men are the two wool- 

The cloth trade that formerly flourished in Guildford 
was at one time an exceedingly important industry, so 
much so that in Richard II. 's time it had the honour 
of a special Act of Parliament all to itself, an Act 
having been passed in 1 39 1 relating to the purchase 
of Guildford cloth i before it had been fulled.' The 
ancient commercial company known as the Merchants 
of the Staple possessed extensive powers of what was 
known as ' inquisition ' over the cloth trade. Their 
officers examined the cloth and reported as to its colour, 
quality and measurement. 


According to the ancient minute-book of this company 
— which still has a corporate existence, ranking as th< 
oldest commercial company in England, possessing 
small income, corporate seal, and a wonderful series oi 
minute-books — a certificate was granted to Heralds 
College in 1482 to the following effect. 

It stated, in somewhat florid language, that th< 
Merchants of the Staple had no fault to find with th< 
Guildford cloth-workers, and that their cloth w< 
1 honest.' The arms, therefore, of the Merchants 
the Staple, a woolsack tied at the four corners, were in- 
cluded twice in the grant of arms made to the town il 
the year following the date of the certificate, and th< 
presence of this woolsack may be taken as a dire( 
compliment from the important body which hac 
the right of examination over the Guildford trade. Some 
further reference to this cloth industry will be made ii 
a succeeding chapter. 

The mantel-piece in the Council Chamber, over whi( 
the town arms appear, is a fine piece of chalk carving 
brought from the ancient Manor House at Stoughton, 
and the four figures upon it are inscribed : — 


There are three paintings in the room, James I. by 
Paul van Somer ; Arthur Onslow, Speaker of the House 
of Commons during the whole reign of George II., dated 
1728 and attributed by Mr. Whitburn to Jonathan 
Richardson ; and the masterpiece in oil of the celebrated 
crayon painter John Russell, R.A., who was a native of 
Guildford, presented by his father, Mayor of the town. 

This latter picture represents Vice-Admiral Sir Richard 
Onslow receiving the Dutch flag after the victory of 1797- 



From d photograph by W. Shcnvcross. 


The frieze over the mantel-piece, a long panel, con- 
tains a representation of the royal arms, and also the 
arms of St. Edward Confessor and those granted in 1483. 
This piece of work was executed in 1686, and it is 
probable that the circular panels of the royal arms and 
of Archbishop Abbot that are below it were executed 
at about the same time. 

A silken banner bearing the town arms hangs from 
a bracket in one of the walls. It was provided by Mr. 
John Ryde Cooke, who was Mayor in 1849-50. He 
was present at the first important gathering of provincial 
Mayors after the passing of the Municipal Corporations 
Act. The gathering took place at York, and before each 
Mayor was carried a banner of the arms of his town, and 
this banner was suspended over his seat at the luncheon. 
Some years after this gathering, Mr. Cooke presented the 
banner to his old friend Mr. John Nealds, who, recog- 
nising its importance to the Corporation, gave it to the 
town, and it was hung in the Council Chamber. 

The municipal insignia of office are in their way 

The Mayor's staff is believed to have been a gift from 
Queen Elizabeth. It is a slender rod of the wood known as 
campeachy wood, commonly styled logwood. This wood 
was introduced into Europe from Campeachy soon after 
the discovery of America, and was used as a dyeing sub- 
stance. For a while there was very great objection to its 
use. Very inferior dyes were said to have been produced 
by its employment, but, as a matter of fact, the reason for 
its prohibition was very largely the complaints of the 
English dyers that this foreign wood interfered with 
their trade. 

In the 24th of Henry VIII. an Act of Parliament was 
passed prohibiting the use of * Brazil wood ' for the dyeing 
of woollen cloth. In the 23rd of Elizabeth another Act 


prohibiting any person from dyeing cloth, kersies, or any 
other thing with logwood was passed, and the penalty 
for the offence was a fine to the dyer and the destruction 
by fire of the material dyed. A third Act of Parliament 
was passed in the 39th year of Elizabeth, prohibiting the 
mixing of logwood with woad or other stuff hitherto used 
for dyeing cloth, and a very heavy penalty was attached 
to the offence. 

It appears that, during the reign of Elizabeth, the rich 
coloured wood so disliked by the English dyers was 
reserved for objects of special importance, and there are 
several references in the rolls of court expenses to royal 
gifts made of campeachy wood. There is, therefore, 
considerable evidence in favour of the local tradition that 
this staff was the gift of the Queen, more especially as the 
stick happens to be 4 feet 5 inches long, and a piece of 
campeachy wood of that unusual size was exceedingly 
rare, and considered to be very precious. 

The staff has a silver head 1^ inches long and ~ of an 
inch in diameter upon it, engraved with the town badge 
of the castle, and the date 1563. Round the head are 
two bands inscribed < FAYRE ■ GOD • DOE • IVSTICE ' 
and < LOVE • THY ■ BRETHER.' A little below the 
head is a plain silver band with simple rings, and at the 
bottom a forked ferrule of blackened steel. Although 
the staff is dated 1563, it is believed not to have come 
into the possession of the town until 1568, and if that 
were the case it is probable that the first Mayor who 
carried the staff was Thomas Smallpeice, a member of 
that ancient family which gave a Mayor to Guildford in 
1503, and still has representatives in the place. 

The four bronze measures, bushel, gallon, quart and 
pint, belonging to the town, are dated 1602, and are 
believed to have been also the gift of Queen Elizabeth. 
They have her initials upon them. Guildford had been 

:/•/• by If. Sfiawcross, 


one of the few towns specially named to have custody 
of standard weights and measures in England. This 
privilege appears in an Act of Parliament passed in the 
14th year of Edward III., and it was emphasized in an 
Act of the 11th year of Henry VII., while during the 
reigns of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth the old measures 
in use were called in and the Sovereign presented to the 
towns mentioned in the Act of Parliament copies in 
bronze of the standard measures. It was at this time 
that both Guildford and Winchester acquired these 
bronze measures. 

Two other measures still belong to the town which 
date from about the same period. They are the small 
copper bowls with handles, by which the town toll or 
corn was taken from each sack deposited for sale in the 
corn market, and they continued in use until the time of 
the abolition of this toll a few years ago. 

The most important treasure, however, possessed by 
the town, is the Small silver mace. It is a piece of 
fifteenth century silver work, probably belonging to 1489, 
when Henry VII. granted his charter to the Corporation. 
There are nearly seven hundred maces in England, but 
out of this number there are but twelve towns pos- 
sessing those of fifteenth century work. Of the twelve, 
only two towns possess large maces, the other ten having 
very little short maces, which have more the appearance 
of college pokers or sergeants' maces. 

Of the two towns with large fifteenth century maces, 
only one, the Guildford one, is entirely of silver, the 
other, that of Hedon, being partly of iron. The Hedon 
mace measures 2 feet 1 inch in length, the Guildford 
one, 2 feet 5| inches, and it is therefore the only large 
silver mace of the fifteenth century in the United 
Kingdom. It stands alone in three other respects. It 
is the only fifteenth century mace yet preserving the 


translucent enamel in the head, the only one with the 
original crested crown, and the only one with the 
original maker's mark, three trefoils, two and one. . This 
mace therefore stands proudly at the very head of the 
list of maces of the United Kingdom. 

There are other special features which make this mace 

The original war maces, used by ecclesiastics and high 
officials as weapons of offence, bore flanges, plain and 
solid, and their effect when used by a powerful man upon 
the skull of an opponent was serious and often fatal. 

Such maces were specially used by those who were 
prevented by custom from drawing a sword to shed 
man's blood, but who did not object to crushing in the 
skull of an enemy with a mace, and were also carried 
by the body-guard to protect royalty and high officials 
from the much dreaded attacks of the Saracen assassins. 

In the fifteenth century a change commenced in the 
ornamentation of these maces, a broad button being 
placed at the bottom of the mace, on which was en- 
graved the royal arms or the crest of the great noble in 
whose procession the war mace was carried and for whose 
defence it was made. Then gradually was introduced 
the habit of reversing the mace in time of peace or at a 
corporation or civic ceremony, and gradually the end 
upon which the royal arms appeared was more and more 
ornamented, and became the more important end, and 
the flanges of defence were relegated to the lower end. 

The mace was the ornament or sign of the person 
who held a special portion of royal authority, or was to 
a certain extent the representative of royalty, or of the 
chief executive power, and therefore the early maces 
bore the royal arms and the later ones more and more 
ornamented the end on which were these arms, and 
gradually surrounded it by cresting, coronet, or crown. 


In time the flanges of defence became smaller and 
smaller, and eventually disappeared altogether, and the 
more modern mace is the result, such as the great seven- 
teenth century mace at Guildford. 

The Guildford mace is, except the iron one of Hedon, 
the oldest in the kingdom of the kind made to be carried 
with the royal arms upwards, as is clearly shown by the 
cresting of leaves, the gilt lions, and the silver ostrich 
feathers around its head, but it retains its flanges, which 
are plain, substantial, and characteristic, and consequently 
just marks the period of about 1480, when the war mace 
and sergeant's mace were gradually changing into the 
civic mace, which was developing from them in steady 
clear evolution. 

The shaft of the mace is straight and plain, and has 
one large and two smaller bosses, with a capital and a 
base, all quite simple and without pattern, dividing it 
into five sections. It terminates in eight open-work 
flanges. These flanges, originally the most important 
portion of the mace, are in position at the base of the 
shaft. The Hedon mace has the flanges, as originally, 
in iron, the Stratford one has the flanges of very ornate 
form, but the Guildford one has them of plain and 
simple form, much more nearly approaching in character 
the original serviceable flanges, and open in work in 
order to give the simplest species of ornamentation. 

The head of the mace is supported by three lions 
rampant and by three ostrich feathers, and has a coronal 
of fleurs-de-lys, with alternate roses and fleurs below. 

Upon the head is a narrow band chased in low relief 
with alternate crosses and fleurs-de-lys, surmounted by a 
pierced cresting of twenty-two strawberry leaves. In 
the centre of the top of the head is a medallion, on 
which is engraved the royal arms, France modern and 
England quarterly crowned, between two ostrich feathers. 


The arms are enamelled on a field of a very beautiful 
translucent green enamel, a portion of which has dropped 
out, and which is of the very highest possible rarity in 
good condition. 

Round the medallion is a beautiful band in low relief 
of crosses and fleurs-de-lys alternately. 

The mace of Stratford-on-Avon possesses two similar 
ostrich feathers on either side of the arms. 

The mace has been re-gilt, and by apparently the 
same workman who carried out similar work to the great 
mace. It is entirely of silver, of great purity, and is 
gilt in all portions, save the supporting feathers, base, 

The arches, orb, and cross surmounting the head are 
of a much later date than the remainder of the mace, 
and were very possibly added in the time of the Stuarts. 
In very many ways the mace closely resembles that of 
Hedon, the oldest civic mace now remaining in England, 
and the flanges, which in the great mace are merely 
ornaments, are in this mace of special importance, size, 
and character. 

Both maces were exhibited at the Society of Anti- 
quaries on June 21, 1 888, and were selected as the typical 
maces for the kingdom in the Winter Exhibition of Old 
Masters and Goldsmiths' Work at the Royal Academy 
in 1896. 

The Great mace measures 34! inches in length, and 
is therefore larger than the majority of maces from 
county towns, but is exceeded in size by many city 
maces. The stem is of silver gilt, and of gadroon 
pattern, having two large bosses and terminated by a 
heavy base. Upon the stem, about seven inches from 
the base, are engraved the Howard arms in a panel, and 
above it are a series of thistles, which the engraver has 
strangely engraved upside down. This eccentricity of 



engraving is very unusual, and is evidently not an error, 
as every thistle is so engraved, although the coat of arms is 
correctly placed. 

The head of the mace is of copper gilt, and has a series 
of ornaments placed upon it, which are of silver, and left 
in the natural colour of the metal. They consist of 
an imperial crown, surmounting a Tudor rose, thistle, 
harp, and fleur-de-lys, with alternate winged caryatides 

The foot knop is embossed with large silver lobes. 

The coronal is composed of alternate cross, moline, 
and fleur-de-lys, and has an arched crown over it, with 
silver beads on the arches, surmounted by an orb and 

Upon the head are engraved the royal arms of the 
Stuart sovereigns, and below the head are four ornamental 
, flanges. The external work over the copper head, 
including the arches and orb, is all of silver ; and an 
unusual feature is the fact that the ornaments, orb and 
cross, pearls, &c, are left in the colour of the metal, 
1 whereas the remaining portion is gilt. In the great 
majority of maces this order was reversed, or else 
the whole was either silver or gilt. 

This mace was presented to the town by the Right 
Honourable Henry Howard, afterwards Duke of Norfolk, 
but then High Steward of the Borough, and the following 
, is the entry in the town books respecting it : 

Memorand. that on the 24th December in the 
year of our Lord 1663 was presented to the Mayor 
and approved men of the Towne a large & Rich 
Mace from the Right Honourable Henry Howard 
of Norfolk our Greate and Noble High Steward by 
the hands of Sir Richard Onslow Knight one of 
the Burgesses of this Towne now serving in 


Parliament. Out of a Due sence whereof and in 
testimony of His Honour's greate Bounty and our 
gratitude we have caused it to be entered amongst 
our Records together with the letter of thanks 
returned to His Honour by the Mayor and approved 
men of this Towne that the memory of soe muni- 
ficent and Noble a Benefactor may remain upon 
Record to all posteritye. 

The Copye of the Letter. 
Right Honourable, 

We should appear most unworthy the greate 
favour you have soe conferred upon this town, in 
bestowing upon us so rich and noble a mark of 
honour, if we should not laye ourselves at your feet 
in acknowledgement of so high a favour. It is in- 
deed, Sir, a present worthy of your large Hart, 
which we doo with all thankfulness acknowledge, 
and shall endeavour to express it by rendering all 
due obedience to your commands and in all our 
dealings of approving ourselves. 

Sir, your Honour's most obliged and most humble 

The mace does not bear any hall-mark nor any 
maker's marks upon any portion of it, and it has been 

The Mayor's gold chain of office was given to the 
town in 1673, by Arthur Onslow, Esq., then High 
Steward, as appears by the following entry in the 
borough records : 

Memorand. that on the third day of March in the six 
& Twentyeth year of the reigne of our most 
gracious Soverayne King Charles the second King 
of England etc. 


1673. Arthur Onslow of West Clandon in the 
County of Surrey Esquire High Steward of this 
towne did then give to the Mayor and approved 
men of the sayd Towne and their successors a faire 
chayne of Gold, Double linked with a medall of 
massey Gold ; whereon his Majesties Armes are 
curiously engraven and on the reverse the Armes of 
the said Mr. Onslow. In token of our gratitude 
and memory whereof we have caused this entry 
among our Records. Optima beneficiorium custus 
est ipsa memoria beneficiorum. 

The chain is composed of a double series of simple 
links, and has suspended from it a large oval medallion, 
3 inches long, engraved on one side with the royal arms 
of Charles II. within the Garter and crowned, with the 
King's initials, also crowned, on either side. The re- 
verse bears a shield of the donor's arms with the date 
mdclxxiii above, surrounded by a band inscribed 
' Semper Fidelis | Festina lente ' and * Ex dono Arthuri 
Onslow Armigcri ' all within a border of laurel leaves. 

The four Aldermen wear chains having a suspended 
tablet of the town arms, all of silver. These are pro- 
vided at their own cost. 

The town records give the following entry as to 
them : 

1836. Jan. 1. 

Resolved that the Aldermen and Councillors 
shall provide themselves with and wear at meetings 
and public occasions the costume that has been 
customarily worn by the Bailiffs of the Borough, 
with the exception that the Aldermen do provide 
and wear a silver chain and medal each of the same 


The common seal, which is apparently of early 
seventeenth century date, is a round silver one, i J inch 
in diameter, bearing a shield of the town arms with the 
legend : 


There is also an oval brass seal, i\ inch long, now 
disused, bearing an embattled gateway flanked by two 
domed towers, and surmounted by a third domed tower, 
with a key erect within the portal. Legend : 


This seal is of late sixteenth century date. 

The rose water bason and ewer were bequeathed to 
the Corporation by John Parkhurst, Bishop of Norwich, 
1560 — 1574-5, who was a native of Guildford. The 
bason is 16^ inches in diameter, of silver, and has a 
repousse centre with wreaths of flowers, &c, enclosing 
an enamelled shield of the arms of the See of Norwich 
impaling those of Parkhurst. On the rim are six bosses 
with medallion centres containing classical heads. Hall- 
marks : Antwerp, with the date-letter U, and, for the 
maker, a pelican in her piety. The ewer is jug-shaped 
on a foot, with a lid, handle and spout, relieved by hand- 
some ribs and chasing. It also bears the Parkhurst arms. 
Hall-marks : London, 1567-8 (with pellet) ; maker's 
mark, a hand holding a hammer. 

The earlier of the tankards is of silver-gilt, 8 inches 
high, with plain straight sides, and domed lid with rayed 
thumb-piece. Its weight is 2i"j^. It is inscribed: 
'baker 81584 This Stoup new Made 1602.' Hall-marks: 
London, 1602-3 5 maker's mark, a harp between the 
initials LM (?). Thomas Baker was Mayor of Guild- 
ford in 1565, 1575 and 1580. 


The other tankard is of the same pattern, but some- 
what taller. Its weight is 22*15 oz. It bears the arms 
of the Haberdashers' Company, with the name lohn 
Austen and the date 1620. 

The two cups are io| inches high, and of the usual 
type, with tall thin baluster stems and plain round feet. 
They are dated, and bear the same arms, &c, as the 
second tankard. Their weights are 13*3 and i3'6oz. 
Both the tankard and the cups bear the London hall-marks 
for 1619-20, and, for the maker, HB conjoined in a 
shaped shield with a small saltire in base. 

In the town records, under date 28 Henry VIII., an 
order is recorded as follows : 

Ordered that the Bailiffes of the town do accom- 
pany the Maior on solemn and public occasions and 
do wear gownes and in default be fined eightpence 
for each offence. 

In the 41st and again in the 45th of Elizabeth an 
order was made for 

The mayor of Guildford for the time being, or 
his deputy in his absence, at church and at court to 
wear his gowne, accompanied by two or more of 
his brethren, and his officers, the sergeants with 
maces carried before him. 

This order was confirmed 16 Charles II. and 2 Anne, 
when it was ordained that the gowns be of colour such 
is 'citizens are accustomed to wear, unless they be of any 
degree in the universities or belonging to any inn of court or 
:hancery or great guild, then in that case they shall wear 
^owns properly belonging to their degrees or positions.' 

The Mayor now also wears a cocked hat of black, 
with a badge of the town arms on it. The Councillors 



wear black cloth gowns, frogged and richly ornamented 
with velvet and trimmings. The Recorder wears a black 
silk gown and bands, and the Town Clerk a black cloth 
gown. The Treasurer has no official garb, but the Clerk 
of the Peace wears a black stuff gown and bands. The 
Mace-bearers also wear black gowns. 

As to these gowns there is the following entry in the 
town records : 

1703. Former orders as to the wearing of 
gowns confirmed and ordered further that the 
Recorder and Town Clerk do provide themselves 
with proper gowns for wear when they shall ac- 
company the Mayor upon solemn occasions. 

In 1686 it is recorded that on October 3rd * the 
mayor and aldermen first wore scarlet gowns.' 

This was in accordance with the provisions of the 
charter of James II., dated 15th of April, 1686, which 
states : 

That it shall and may be lawful for the Maior 
and Aldermen of the said towne on all holidays 
convocaytions public meetings and solemnities for 
their greater ornament and honour to wear gownes 
made of scarlet cloth. 

The privilege was granted by James II. 'as a mark 
of his special and peculiar affection ' for the town. 

Recently there has been a suggestion on the part of 
a certain Radical member of the Town Council that 
the wearing of gowns by the Corporation should be 
discontinued, but in a letter to the newspapers the author 
pointed out that, whenever the question of the disuse of 
the gowns comes to be really seriously considered, it 
must be borne in mind that there is not only a senti- 
mental side to the question, but one of very grave 


The privilege which Guildford people value so 
highly of exemption from the juries of the assizes, and 
from all juries outside the town limits, ' if summoned 
against their will,' stands or falls by the same series of 
charters as the privilege as to wearing the gowns, and if 
Guildford tampers with the privileges granted by char- 
ter, or allows them to fall into disuse by neglect or 
indifference, it may some day find that in losing one 
privilege, which does not seem of great importance, 
the town may lose another which is of vast importance 

toit * 

Let it be once understood in high circles that 

Guildford cares nothing for a privilege made as a special 

mark of Royal favour, and given to very few towns in 

the kingdom, and it may speedily be thought that the 

time has come for the abrogation of an old charter 

pronounced to be of such small importance, and with it 

may go one of the great privileges which the inhabitants 

of Guildford possess. 

* It seemed desirable to warn the Corporation, very 
seriously, of the danger of interfering with privileges 
granted in the seventeenth century, and so breaking the 
bonds which unite us to our ancestors, and remind us 
of rights hardly won, and of advantages which it cost 
those of olden time great efforts to obtain, and under 
which we live and enjoy our citizenship.' 

The letter just referred to went on to state as 
follows : 

' The question of the gowns may appear to be a 
small one, but no right that has been handed down from 
remote antiquity is of small importance. And be it 
remembered that these links with the past make life 
picturesque, and remind us of the " making of the 
English people," and they are subjects of the very 
keenest interest to our brethren over the seas who, in 


America especially, would give all they possess could 
they but have the signs of great antiquity which belong 
to us, and which often we think of so little importance. 5 

One of the officials who has always been connected 
with the Corporation is the Beadle. 

His title is a quaint and curious one, and his name 
goes back to Anglo-Saxon times ; goes back 900 tc 
1,000 years. He was simply a messenger, a forerunner, 
one who announces, and the word c beadle ' owns to 
the same root that gives us ■ bid ' and t bode,' the Anglo- 
Saxon beodan, to command. The old English spelling 
of the word was * bedel,' and this use still survives in 
the name of similar officials at the Universities. Few 
words have been so permanent in their hold on Europe. 
In German we have buttel ; Danish, beal ; French, 
badel, bedel, bedeaux ; Spanish and Portuguese, bedel ; 
Italian, bidello ; Latin, bedellus. 

In almost all cases the official so called was the 
summoner, the messenger, the crier, and had the subor- 
dinate offices of the chastisement of petty offenders, the 
preservation of order in church, the citing of persons tc 
appear and answer, and the duty of preceding as fore- 
runner and announcer of all public processions. Hi 
duty was, in short, to bid people do this or that, a; 
representing a certain corporate dignity. 

In Guildford there has always existed such an office; 
as long as there was any supreme body requiring tc 
give instructions. As early as in 1256, in the guile 
records, he is called sometimes the < marshal,' and some- 
times the l beadle,' and with two cupbearers he attendee | 
the Mayor when he received the fealty of the Gild- J 
Merchant of Kingston. In 1369 we hear of th< 
Bailiff, or Maior, attended by his marshal or beadle, hii 
cupbearers and four hall-wardens, going to Winchester 
triennially to acknowledge its Corporation as its mothe' 


3y affiliation, as Kingston on its part annually ac- 
cnowledged Guildford. In the Tudor times he collected 
:oll from those outside the guild, and the dues of the 
:own, and he served the chief magistrate at the feast 
md preceded him to church on St. Blaise's Day. 

In Stuart times he was called a bedel, and he sum- 
moned juries, delivered summonses to the meetings of 
:he guild, and attended on all solemn occasions the 
,)ld Corporation both to church and on occasions of 
lignity. Down to 1800 he continued a servant of the 

ild-Merchant, the messenger of the body, and the one 
(A^ho bid the people take notice that those whom they 
lad selected to rule over them were making an official 

Since 1800 he has been attached to the successor 
)f the Gild-Merchant, the Corporation. His duties 
vhen the Corporation attended church are thus declared 
)y a Guildford man in 1768 : 'We did fear, as boys, 
he approach of Master Beadle, for if we did not remove 
Ourselves as quickly as he would we have done when 
Mr. Maior did enter the church, he had a habit of using 
apon our short clothes the butt-end of his gold staff with 
,'igour, and upon one occasion in Upper Church he 
lid break it in twain by such use. He was particularly 
Dbservant of our manner of behaviour in church, and 
we did cause him some trouble, I wit, by our light 
^abits, but we were but boys, and the sermons were 
ong and tedious.' 

His duties nowadays do not embrace the chastisement 
rf children in church, nor that of flogging criminals at 
:he cart-tail, nor of ducking scolds, nor of imprisoning 
persons in either stocks or pillory, and announcing their 
:rime and its punishment, as was the case in olden 
imes. The duties now are of an ornamental and 
Jignified character, and the Beadle, as messenger, fore- 


runner, and summoner to Mr. Mayor, is a picturesque 
survival of a past use, and his old offices are filled by a 
multiplicity of officials. His stipend, however, has also 
passed from the serious to the ornamental stage, and £i 
per annum is all he costs the Corporation, and perhaps 
an occasional coat or hat. 

It may be of interest while we are considering the 
Town Hall and the Government of the place to refer to 
the question of the Parliamentary elections. The Borough 
of Guildford has sent members to Parliament ever since! 
the 23rd of Edward I., 1291, when Andrew Le; 
Conestable and John Nichole represented the Borough; 
at the Parliament at Westminster. 

The privileges of the men of Guildford from the 
Norman Conquest were carefully safeguarded. King 
William is said to have had a hundred and seventy-five 
men in the town, and they were under the government 
of the King's Reeve, and had to pay considerable aid to' 
the King. In 11 72, the aid of the town was unpaid 
by reason of the poverty of the place, but in 1256 the 
charter of Henry III. grants that the good men of 
Guildford and their heirs should not be arrested for 
any debt for which they were not pledges, unless the 
debtor should be of their town, and the object of this; 
grant was to secure the men of Guildford from liability . 
to any debts but their own and those of others for 
whom they had become pledge, and who, as inhabitant 
householders within their borough, must have had pro- 
perty in it by which they could be summoned and 
made responsible. 

The charter thus confined the liability of the men of 
Guildford to the debts of those who were enrolled in 
their commonalty, and gave the town a personal respon- 
sibility apart from that of any other place. In 1354 it 
appears from the pleas before the Barons of the Ex- 



chequer that the sub-collectors of the King's tenth 
were charged with partiality and with having imposed 
the taxes unequally upon the people of Guildford, it 
being alleged that those charges should be assessed pro- 
portionately upon all the men of the place. This again 
implies that there was an inner section of people in 
Guildford specially safeguarded by reason either of their 
freedom or their freeholds. 

In 1460, a declaration was made that the burgesses 
who elected the Member were ' the men of Guildford 
commorant and resiant there.' We have little evidence 
as to who were the burgesses who elected the Member 
from that time until 1689, when the question again 
came into dispute before the House of Commons 
whether the right of election was only in the freemen 
and freeholders resiant, paying scot and lot, or generally 
In them, whether they paid scot and lot or not. In the 
course of the inquiry it appeared in evidence that an 
order was to be read in the church for all freemen to 
come to the election, and it was clear that only the 
freemen were entitled to the privilege, villains, females, 
and ecclesiastics not being entitled to enjoy it. 

The Committee of the House resolved c that the right 
was only in the freemen and freeholders of the town 
paying scot and lot, resiant in the same,' and in this 
decision of the House of Commons the first mention of 
freeholders as such in connection with Guildford appears. 

The decision was resented in the town, as the posses- 
sion of a freehold had never been necessary to make the 
person a freeman. It was a clear and incontestable 
proof that he was free, but the possession of the freehold 
was not his claim to burgess-ship, and his right to the 
privilege consisted in his freedom, in his residence, and 
in his payment of scot and lot. A little variation in 
the arrangement for elections took place in 17 10, when 


it was for the first time agreed by the House of Com- 
mons that a person who had served seven years as an 
apprentice to a freeman in Guildford was ipso facto a 
freeman, but a curious fact came out in the evidence. 

It was said that two persons were not rated ' in the 
parish of Trinity, Guildford,' where they resided, 
because that parish would not receive them as inhabi- 
tants, but they were rated where they came from, and 
they were therefore not householders paying scot and 
lot. The reason for this statement was that the govern- 
ing body of Guildford insisted upon its power of rejecting 
whom it thought fit, a power which we have already 
seen exercised with regard to John Aylward, and it was 
said that these two persons, who had no right by birth 
or by service, could not be made free or acknowledged 
as inhabitant householders paying scot and lot, save by 
the Gild-Merchant, and that such Gild-Merchant could 
not be forced to grant the privilege. 

It is interesting that the question of inhabitancy, 
upon which the whole system of the law of election now 
rests, should first have been raised in Guildford, and it 
is also a curious fact that this same evidence before the 
House of Commons states that in Guildford the laws of 
primogeniture had been applied to the laws of freedom, 
and that although freedom by birth actually extended to 
all children, males for themselves and females for their 
husbands, yet by a curious perversion in this town it had 
been limited only to the eldest son. 

Yet a third fact came out in the evidence, and that 
was that fines were paid to the town by those not 
entitled by birth or service to the freedom, who yet 
desired to reside in the town, and the House of Com- 
mons ruled that, as this implied a purchase of the 
freedom, it was contrary to law, and ought to be sup- 

c 5 

3 S 

-J "" 

° $ 

C Kg 

c p 





Once again the right or election came before the 
House, and this was in 17 13, and it was then decided 
that freemen having no right to freedom by birth or 
service must be admitted by the consent of the majority 
of the Mayor and approved men. 

The right of election in the inhabitants paying scot 
and lot continued down to the time of the first Reform 
Bill, which abolished the freeman's vote, but the town 
continued to return two members of Parliament elected 
in the ordinary way until 1868, when one member was 
taken away. By one member only the town was then 
represented until 1885, when under an Act for redis- 
tributing the seats the Borough lost its ancient privilege 
md was merged into the newly-formed Guildford 
division of the county. 

We have therefore in Guildford one uniform history 
from the earliest period down almost to the present 
time with regard to the right of returning members of 
Parliament, vested in the persons who bore the burden 
md shared the privileges of the place, and who were 
styled by the Committee of the House in the time of 
James I. ' the inhabitant householders commorant and 
rcsiant, paying scot and lot.' 

Chapter III 


A S far back as in 978, in the time of Ethelred II., 
^** Guildford was the seat of a Royal Mint, and such 
mintage continued with intervals down to the time of 
William II., 1100, and was at its greatest importance 
in the time of St. Edward the Confessor. 

One of the interesting features of the Guildford 
Mint is the fact that the earliest coins bear the name of 
DUNSTAN upon them, and that there is little doubt 
that this name refers to the well-known Archbishop of 
Canterbury of that name, an eminent worker in 
metals, and to whom artificers of that early time 
were largely indebted for examples and instruction in 
forging, die-sinking, engraving, and the striking of 

St. Dunstan on one occasion is said to have visited 
this town with Ethelred II., and possibly by his work 
and action originated the Guildford Mint. Coins bearing 
his name are clearly conspicuous by a finer and more 
artistic finish, and by the unmistakable touch of a 
cultivated hand. 

It is believed that the moneyer, as the master of the 
mint was called in those times, travelled about with the 
King, and hence his name appears on the coins which 
were struck at different places. Of the coins struck at 
Guildford by Ethelred II. there are several varieties, and 
they bear the names of three moneyers, DUNSTAN, 
DUNGILD, and LEOFPOLD. The name of the 
latter moneyer also appears on Exeter coins. The name 
of the town on this series is abbreviated to GYLD. 


There are eight coins known of the time of Cnut 
(1016-1035), and six of them bear the name of a 
moneyer BLAEAMAN, spelt on one coin BAEAMAN 
by the accidental omission, it is supposed, of the letter 
L on the first die. The other two moneyers whose 
names appear in this reign are SNEADlNE and 
WULFSIG, and the name of the town appears in the 
various abbreviated forms of GY, GYL, GYLD, and 

BLAEAMAN is the moneyer again in the next 
reign, that of Harthacnut (1 039-1 042), and the same 
moneyer has his name on coins issued in that reign in 
Nottingham, then called Snotingaham. The name of 
the town in the coins of Harthacnut is abbreviated 
! to GIL. 

In the time of St. Edward Confessor (1042- 1066), 
there was a long series of coins issued at Guildford, and 
the King often sojourned in the town, it being one of 
his favourite places of residence. The coins were of 
several varieties, issued at different periods of the King's 
reign, and the names of the moneyers are also various. 
BLAEAMAN is the chief, but his name is sometimes 
spelt BLAEEMAN, sometimes BLAEEMAN, and 
sometimes BLAEMAN. Another moneyer is 7EL- 
FRIC, and on his coins the name of the town is spelt 
as closely as it ever came on this series to its present 
spelling. It reads GILDEFOR. /ELFRIC'S name 
appears once as ALFRIE. There is also a moneyer 
named ALDIE, but the inscription on the coin which 
he issued for the King is put upside down and reversed, 
and therefore the penny is not always recognised as one 
issued in Guildford. 

The last moneyer who can be named in this reign is 
ELFDINE, and his name comes towards the close of 
the reign of St. Edward, and also is to be found on the 


coins which the King issued at Chichester, Cambridge, 
Southampton, Thetford, Wilton, Worcester, Ipswich, 
and London, showing that ELFDINE moved about 
with the monarch of England to a great many places 
where there were opportunities for striking coins. The 
name of the town in the reign of St. Edward was 
abbreviated in many different ways. GILDEFOR has 
already been mentioned, and other coins read GY, GIL, 
GYLD, and GLDE. The name of the King usually 

In the time of Harold II. (1066-1066) we have 
another moneyer appearing — one LEOFPOLD — and 
the name of the town is put as GILDI. 

In the time of William I. (1066- 108 7) there are but 
two varieties known of coins issued at Guildford, and 
one of them on which the name of the town reads 
GUILDF is in such poor condition — detrited, as coin 
collectors call it — that the name of the moneyer cannot 
be read. This rare coin is in the Swedish collection. 
The other, which is at the British Museum, reads 
SERIE, and the name of the town is put as 

SERIE appears in the next reign, that of William II. 
(1087-1100), and then the name of the town is given 
as GILDFRD again, while there are three other 
moneyers whose names appear 7ELFRIE, ERIE and 
GODDINE, the abbreviated name of the town reading 
GDE, GLDE and GILLD respectively. 

All these coins were, of course, silver pennies 
weighing from 20 to 27 grains apiece. There were 
no other coins at that time in use. Some of those issued 
by St. Edward Confessor were of what is called the 
sovereign type, in which the King is to be seen at full 
length seated in a chair of state, but many of them 


give only his face, executed in very rough and archaic 
fashion, while on the reverse of the coin often appeared 
the arms of the monarch already mentioned on page 20. 

Some of those issued by William I. bear his well- 
known inscription of PAXS. Their metal consisted of 
iioz. 2dwts. fine silver to i8dwts. of alloy. This 
mixture was called the old standard, and is the same 
which, after some variation under Henry VIII. and 
Edward VI., was finally re-established by Queen Eliza- 
beth, and has continued in use down to the present day 
— a period of over nine hundred years. The coins are 
supposed to have been struck in a collar, for they are 
uniformly round, and those of William I. are as per- 
fectly cylindrical in a column as such a column would 
be if composed of shillings of the present day. 

Many of the coins have been found in this neighbour- 
hood, although not very lately, but all coins struck at 
Guildford are considered as rarities by the collector, and 
the mints both at this town and at Godalming, where 
similar coins were struck but in even fewer numbers, 
must have been but small, as so very few specimens of 
their issue now remain. They, however, afford a most 
interesting proof of the connection of the Anglo-Saxon 
Kings with this town, which was part of their patri- 
mony and estate, at which they resided with their Courts, 
and where from time to time they struck their coins. 

Forming a somewhat interesting link between this 
local coinage and the later minor currency of tokens 
comes the series of lead seals that were attached to the 
cloth made in the town. 

These seals were affixed to the piece of cloth as a 
sort of maker's mark or guarantee of quality, but after- 
wards were detached and used in the transaction of sale 
or purchase as representing the cloth, and thus they 
constituted an actual token currency. Quantities of 


cloth often changed hands by the interchange of these 
tokens without the material itself being seen in the 
transaction, and at length the popular habit became the 
excuse for fraud, and Acts of Parliament were passed, 
rendering it illegal for purchases to be made of cloth 
unless the seal or bulla was attached to each piece of the 

There is an allusion by Bishop Parkhurst, a native of 
Guildford, in one of the Zurich letters, published by the 
Parker Society, to some cloth which he sent for, where 
he complained that the seal had been removed, and the 
guarantee of quality thus lost. Very many of these 
lead seals have been found in Guildford. They were 
as a rule in two halves, and were joined together on the 
piece of cloth by a blow from a hammer. 

It is an interesting fact that the same class of lead seal 
is still affixed in the North of England to lengths of 
baize and felt, in much the same way, although the 
seals in use at the present time are far larger than were 
the old Guildford ones, the latter seldom exceeding the 
size of a farthing. The seals bear upon them various 
makers' marks, one only having upon it a name. This 
seal, which was dug up in Lea-pale Road in the parish 
of Stoke, is believed to belong to the fourteenth century 
and has upon it the following legend : ' SIGIL 
WODEL ON STOK,' which may be read as 'the 
seal of Wode or Wodel in Stoke.' The use of these 
lead tokens continued down to the time of James I. 

The next currency connected with the town is that 
of the seventeenth century tokens. They were issued 
for necessary change, inasmuch as there was no legalised 
small change save the regal farthings of James I. and 
Charles I., which were debased coinage, forced upon the 
people to their great abhorrence. 

The popular issue of tokens by towns and tradesmen 



originated therefore in a national necessity, and they 
continued current until that necessity was supplied. The 
earliest of these tokens were issued in 1648, and they 
were issued all over the country by towns in their cor- 
porate capacity, and by about twenty thousand persons 
engaged in all departments of trade. They comprised 
halfpence and farthings, and passed current in the 
districts in which their issuers were known. 

At first a great convenience in the days when the 
smallest regal coinage was silver, they eventually became 
a nuisance, and, being only repayable, strictly speaking, 
at the office or shop of the issuer, they were deemed in- 
convenient, abolished by royal proclamation, and regal 
currency took their place. Their history sheds a great deal 
of light upon the manners and customs of the times. 
In Guildford the town issued these tokens, and a number 
of traders followed suit. The following is the list of 
all the issues that are known to the author. The letters 
O and R refer to the obverse and reverse side of the 
token, the mark = signifies that that which follows is in 
the field or central part of the token, and the figures £ 
or £ show the denomination of the piece, whether 
halfpenny or farthing. 

0. gvildford . 1 668 = A castle between two wool- 
sacks, in base a lion couchant ; the arms of the 
Borough of Guildford. 

R. F . M . F . s . 1668 = A cross patonce, between 
five martlets ; the arms of St. Edward the Con- 
fessor £ 


Variety of above, same as described, except that the 
cross on the shield of the reverse is smaller, and 
the castle on the obverse larger. 

The initials are probably those of the overseers. 

O. iohn . browne = A woolsack. 

R. in . gilford . 1656 == A castle. 

John Browne was elected Bailiff of the town in 1662, 
in room of another discharged. 

O. Simon . crane = A woolsack. 

R. in . gilford . 1656 = A castle. 

This man was a grocer in the High Street, and as a 
lad was a Guildford town apprentice, being noted in the 
town books as having served his father, also a grocer, 
'seven full years.' He was made a Justice of the Peace in 
1 65 2, and in the same year was elected Mayor of the town, 

The following passage occurs in the parish register oi 
Holy Trinity : 

' 1 do approve of the eleccion of Caleb Cooper to bee 
Register for the marriages, etc., of the parish of Trinity 
in Guldeford, September 22, 1653. 

6 Symon Crane, Maior.' 

He resided in St. Mary's parish, and was evidently a 
person of some property, as, in the Roll of the Subsidy 
granted to Charles I. in Parliament in 1 640, we read : 

i Symon Crane in goods iij^ ; the assessment being at 

the rate of 

' Lands paid vim. ) . , , 

. r^ 1., J ••• , > in every pound. 
1 Goods paid vj. nj«. J J r 

He was buried November 29, 1658. 


0. CHARLES . HANBY = A Woolsack. 

R. in . gilford . 1662 = A castle. 



The parish book states that Charles Handby was — 

* Elected Constable for St. Mary's, Dec. 31, 1670.' 

Also : 

' Charles Hanbey was discharged from being Tything- 
man, John Burt being appointed in his room, Sept. 1, 
1662 (14 Car. II.).' 

0. CHARLES . HANDBY = A Woolsack. 

R. in . gilford . 1662 = A castle. 
0. iohn . king . in = A woolsack. 

R. gvildford . 64 = A castle. 

John King was a freeman of Guildford, having taken up 
his freedom from his father (also a freeman) as eldest son. 

He was appointed collector for the poor of St. Mary's, 
April 25, 1 67 1. 

A variety is dated 1658. 

0. EDWARD . LEE . IN = A Castle. 
R. GILLDFORD . 1 658 = A WOolpack. 



0. EDWARD . LEE = A WOolpack. 
R. GVILDFORD . 1 664 = A castle. 

Nothing whatever is known respecting this issuei 
He is presumed to have been a relative of Henry Lee. 

O. HENRY . LEE . IN = A woolsack. 

R. gvildford . 1 658 = A small castle. 

Henry Lee was one of the town poor apprentices, 
having been apprenticed by the overseers to i John Childs 
and another, and faithfully served them seven full years,' 
taking up the freedom of the town. 

He evidently attained to a good position in the town 
afterwards, from the fact of his issuing his own trade 
token. He was elected overseer for the parish of 
St. Mary, April 4, 1680, and December 26, 1682, and 
churchwarden, April 13, 1691. 

The modern spelling of the name of the town appears 
on this token for the first time. 
A variety is dated 1653. 


R. of . Gilford . 1 656 = A woolsack. 

A town apprentice, having been bound to Thomas 
Newman, and served him ' seven full years.' 

He was made ' Bayliffe ' in 1659, anc ^ elected one 
of the 'approved men,' or Town Councillor, in 1660, 
and also in 1661. 


In 1662, however, the following record appears in the 
town books : 

* Nicholas Lintott was discharged from being called 
by the name of Bayliffe in 1662, for refusing to take 
the oath and make subscription.' 

This probably refers to the Corporation Act* 
(17 Car. II., cap. 2), and to the Oath of Non-resistance 
and abjuring the Covenant (15 Car. II., cap. 5) ; and 
the fact of Lintott refusing to take it would imply that 
he was a Dissenter, probably a Quaker, very possibly 
one of those who, with other Guildford men, supported 

A remarkable proof of this man's strong Puritan 
opinions appears in Holy Trinity register, in which 
his family are conspicuously entered as * Borne,' in the 
'Baptized' column, and never as 'Baptized.' 
A variety is dated 1666. 
Another variety is also dated 1658. 

0. iohn . may . shoomaker = A shoe or last. 

R. IN . GILFORD . l668 = HALFE 


I . S 

* The objectionable words in this Act were the following : * I, A. B., 
do swear that it is not lawful upon any pretence whatever to take up arms 
against the King, and that I do abhor that traitorous position of taking up 
arms against His Person, or against those that are commissioned by him. 
And that I will not at any time endeavour any alteration of Government 
either in Church or State.' 


With one exception, this is the rarest of all the 
Guildford series, and one of the scarcest of the tokens of 
the county. 

Nothing is at present known about the issuer of this 
token, the only half-penny of the series, and an excep- 
tion to the general rule as regards the spelling of the 
word PENNY. 

O. ABDIAH . MARTIN . 1 664 A woolsack. 

R. in . gilford . 1664 =A castle. 

A freeman of Guildford, having served his father in 
apprenticeship seven years. 

He was proprietor of a piece of ground next the 
i Tun Inn,' in Tunsgate, upon which an annual charge 
to the Grammar School existed, as in the rent roll of 
the Free Grammar School, December 15, 1671, we 
read : 

' Abdiah Martin is charged for his garden and where 
the mercate house is built xxd.' 

A piece of this ground was afterwards purchased by 
the Corporation, and the wheat market-house above 
referred to built upon it. 

This market-house, was, however, let on a lease of 
1,000 years to a Mr. Steere on June 13, 1737. 

A singular variety of this token bears on the 
obverse, in addition to the legend, the date 1664, 
and on the reverse 1652. 

It is clear, on examination, that the obverse is the 
usual one, as described above ; but the reverse exactly 


resembles that of the following token of John Martin, 
and it is supposed that the same coiner struck each of 
these tokens, but that, in error, he used an old reverse 
die of John Martin in striking a second issue for 
Abdiah, instead of the correct die. 

Another most curious variety reads abdiah . mar- 
tin . martin on the obverse, and is clearlv one 
struck from an incorrect die, probably only a 
A third variety is struck upon pure copper, not 
brass as usual, and is nearly one-eighth of an 
inch thick. 

O. IOHN . MARTIN = A woolsack. 

R. in . gilford . 1652 = A castle. 

This John Martin is another instance of a poor lad 
rising to considerable position and affluence in his native 
town. The old parish register informs us that he was 
apprenticed by the overseers to Mr. Cobbet, and served 
his master ' faithfully and well for nine years.' Some- 
thing like an apprenticeship ! 

In 1640 he had become a man of property, and the 
Roll of the Subsidy, previously quoted as granted by 
Parliament to Charles I., has his name thus : 

'Iohn Martyn in goodes i'\j£ paying vs. iijd. in every 

In 1643, tne town records note that John Martyn 
was one of the wardens of the Rye Market-house. 

The Rye Market-house stood in High Street, and 
occupied a site in the north-east corner of Holy Trinity 
Church. It was pulled down on January 6, 1758, and 
its value (£200) invested in bank stock. 

In 1647 J onn Martyn was elected as Mayor, but, 
singular to state, does not appear as an i approved man,' 
or Councillor, until 1651, and would therefore appear 


to have been selected from the town without first passing 
through the Council. He was elected an ' approved 
man' six times, i.e. in 1651, 1652, 1653, j ^5^j i 65 7 
and 1658, and was again Mayor in 1654 and 1655. 

In 1663 the town incurred an expense of one hun- 
dred and fifty-five pounds (£155) (in those days an 
enormous sum), which was all spent in welcoming his 
Majesty Charles II., in his visit to Guildford soon after 
his restoration. Like a brave old Royalist, as he most 
certainly must have been, John Martyn — or Martin, as 
the name then appears — gave a subscription of five 
pounds (£5) towards this expense ; and, with the ex- 
ception of Smallpeece, Nettles and another resident, 
who gave equal amounts, we do not find that any 
Guildfordian gave so large a gift. He evidently lived 
in the parish of St. Mary, as the churchwardens' book 
proves, his signatures being head of the list for several 
years in the signatures of those who attended the vestry 
meetings. The fact that it is first written whenever he 
attended shows he was considered a man of great im- 
portance in the parish. He is buried near the north door 
of iSt. Mary's Church, having died at the age of 

A variety is dated 1657 


I . E 

R. gvildford . in . svrry = A thistle or a wheat- 


Joseph Nettles was an 'approved man' of Guildford 
five times, viz., in 1657, l ^S^-> x ^59j j 66° and 1661. 

He is described in Russell's ' History ' as being of St. 
Mary's parish ; and he founded an exhibition to the 
University of Oxford or Cambridge, for the son of a 
freeman taught in the Grammar School, by leaving to 
the said school certain lands in Stoke on trust. 

This man shared the same fate as Nicholas Lintott, 
previously referred to, being discharged from being 
called by the name of Bayliffe for refusing to take the 
oath in 1662. 

He was a publican, and tenant of the Grammar 
School for the ' Tun Inn.' See the rent roll of Decem- 
ber 15, 1 67 1, in which his rent is mentioned at ' xxx;. 
for the halfe yeare.' He also rented of the same charity 
'a corne chamber over the wheat mercate house and a 
shed thereto belonging for xxvj*. for the halfe yeare. 1 

As mentioned before, he was one of the three men 
who subscribed £5 each towards the expense of ^155 
incurred in welcoming Charles II. to Guildford in 

0. IOHN . REMNANT = A Castle. 

R. of . gillford . 1 667 = A woolsack. 

John Remnant was a resident in St. Mary's parish, 
and was appointed collector for the poor for that parish 
in 1669. He was also appointed surveyor of highways 
for the same parish on December 29, i6/i,and over- 
seer of highways for the same, December 29, 1674. 


Boyne in his book on ' Tokens ' gave the spelling of 
Gillford incorrectly as Gilford. 

The issuer, with two others, had a distress served 
upon him in 1670, in which goods value £16 16s. were 
taken from the three of them for an attendance at a 
meeting held in the street, when kept out of their 
meeting-house at Guildford. 

In 1670 we read the following quaint and interesting 
entry of him : ' Jane Remnant, of Guildford, had taken 
from her soe much cheese as was worth aboute fower 
pounds for three pounds imposed on her son John for 
being at a silent meeting amongst Friends, where shee 
was not nor did usually frequent. The wch cheese was 
keept by ye magistrates whilst it was spoyled, for none 
would buy it, but it was cast forth and buryed.' — Besse's 
' Sufferings of the Quakers,' vol. i., p. 699. 

O. daniell . sarlle = A castle (no inner circle). 
R. in . Gilford . 1667 = A woolsack with inner 

One of the specimens in the author's cabinet was found 
between some boards in the Town Hall by Apark the 
Beadle, in 1847, anc ^ ls the only token he ever heard 
was found in the Hall. 

The issuer is supposed to have been a lawyer ; 
his signature appears on receipts in the receipt-book 
of Nettles' Charity, and also as a ratepayer of the 
parish of Holy Trinity, in the churchwardens' book 
at the Easter Vestries of 1697, 1699, I 7 02 anc * *7 l Z- 
In the roll of voluntary contributors toward the alteration 


of the gallery in the church, in 1699, his name appears, 
with that of John Smallpeece, as a donor of 2s. 6d. 

He took up his freedom of the town, as eldest son, 
from his father ; and he was appointed Tythingman in 
1658, and overseer of the poor for the parish of St. 
Mary, 1676. 

0. iohn . smallpeece = A castle with a woolsack 

before it. 
R. in . gvilford = A barge with four men rowing. 

The representative of one of the very oldest Guild- 
ford families, resident in the town now for over 400 

This John Smallpeece was a grocer, and his father 
was also of that trade ; and in the constitution-book of 
the town, amongst the apprenticeships registered, is this 
name : 

1 Apprenticed to his Father and Mother, Grocers.' 
It is an unusual entry, and would appear to prove 
that the mother was an active and working partner in 
the business, so much so as to be mentioned in the 
indenture of apprenticeship. 

On Tuesday, August 26, 1662 (14 Car. II.), twelve 
royal commissioners, amongst whom was Sir Richard 
Onslow, held sittings at Guildford, to inquire into 
the proceedings of the Mayor and certain magistrates 
of the town, who had refused to take the oath of 
supremacy and non-resistance upon the restoration of 
Charles II. ; 
4 and Henry Parson, Maior ; R. Budd, sen., John How, 


John Alderton, Wm. Hill, T. Smith, T. Horsnaile, ; 
magistrates, were discharged and acquitted from the 
office of maioraltie and magistracey of the said towne 
for refusing to take the Oathes and make subscription 
as by the said act of parliament is enjoyned. And 
for the future they be not called or beare the name 
of magistrates and approved men of the towne afore- 
said ; and John Smalepeice, grocer, was chosen Maior 
in his stead.' 

He was, from this extract, evidently a man of some 
note in the town for loyalty to Church and King, or 
he would not have been specially selected for this honour 
by the royal commissioners. 

He lived to the age of seventy-nine, and died July 29, 
1 70 1, and is buried in the centre aisle of Holy Trinity 

He was elected constable, a kind of special overseer, 
for his native parish of St. Mary on December 24, 1668, 
and in the churchwardens' book for St. Mary's occurs 
the following entry : 

4 Sept. ye 1, 1672. 

i Collected for John Smallpeece of Guildford for losses 
by Fire xxiij*. viij^.' 

It would appear from this entry that he was a person 
of so much consequence in the parish, that a special 
offertory was made at the parish church to assist him in 
meeting some heavy loss incurred by fire. 

In 1695 he was churchwarden of the parish of Holy 
Trinity, and his signature as a ratepayer occurs in the 
churchwardens' book of that parish at the Easter vestries 
of 1697, 1699 and 1 70 1. Among the list of voluntary • 
contributions towards the altering of the gallery of Holy 
Trinity Church, 1699, his name appears as a donor of 
2s. 6d. In this roll the total amount collected was only 
£j 14s., and only five donations were of 10s., most of 



he amounts being 2s. 6d. and is. There is an oft- 
ecurring item in the churchwardens' account, reading, 
For breaking the ground in the Church, paid Iohn 
Smallpeece 6s. 8d.' 

An ancestor of this issuer was Mayor of the town in 
1502, and the name appears on the Mayor's Roll in 
1552, 1560, 1568, 1574, 1582, 1591, 1596, 1602, 
[662 (as above), 1707, 17 14, 1 83 1, and 1836 ; but, 
ilthough members of the family have been on the 
Council since, they have not provided another Mayor of 
:he borough. 

0. IAMES . SNELLING = A Woolsack. 

R. in . gvilforde = A castle. 

As far as can be ascertained, the specimen of this 
token in the author's cabinet is unique. It was presented 
to the late John Nealds, a well-known Guildford anti- 
quary, by the Rev. Charles Kerry, when curate of 
Puttenham, a most zealous and painstaking antiquary, 
who found it near Guildford when searching for 
some flint implements on March 4, 1873. There is 
no specimen of it in the British Museum, nor in any 
public or private collection within the personal know- 
ledge of the author, and it is very singular that one only 
of this issue should be known as surviving from those 
originally struck. 

The issuer was a freeman of the town, taking up his 
freedom from his father as eldest son. He was evidently 
a well-known and respected man, as he served his town 


as ' an approved man ' no less than ten times, i.e., in 
1665, 1666, 1667, 1668, 1669, 1670, 1671, 1672, 
1673, 1674, and was elected Sergeant-at-Mace, Septem- . 
ber 1, 1662, in room of William Tisberry, discharged 
for refusing to take the oath. 

In January, 1660, James Snelling, Quaker, was taken 
from his house at Guildford, and committed to the 
White Lion Prison, Southwark, and there placed among 
the felons, with seventy other Quakers from different 
parts cf Surrey, thirty-two of whom were tried on 
October 30, 1662, for obstinate refusal to repair unto a 
church or chapel, and being present at an unlawful 
assembly or conventicle, and were sentenced to be im- 
prisoned for three months, and after that time to abjure 
the realm or be proceeded against as felons. — Besse's 
' Sufferings of the Quakers,' vol. i., p. 690. 

O. thomas . tompson = A castle. 

R. of . gilford . 1657 = A woolsack. 

Thomas Tompson was apprenticed to Mathew 
Birchell, and served him seven full years, taking up his 
freedom therefrom. 

He was elected 'approved man' three times, viz., 
1665, 1666, 1667, and Bailiff of the town, 1664. 

In 1608 (6 Jac. I.) the entry occurs in the Guildford 
constitution-book relative to this issuer : 

' Thomas Tompson, the elder one, of the Corporation 
of Guildford, disfranchised, and dismissed from the 
fellowship of the Mayor and approved men during such 
tyme as he shall keep a common alehouse or tiplinge- 

0. thomas . tompson = A castle. 

R. of . gillford . 1 657 = A woolsack. 

The only difference between this issue and the last 
occurs in the spelling of the word 'Gilford' or 'Gill- 
ford,' one being with only one * l,' the other having two. 


In January, 1660, Thomas Thompson, Quaker, was 
aken from his bed at Guildford and committed to the 
White Lion Prison, Southwark, and there placed among 
he felons, with seventy other Quakers from different 
)arts of Surrey, thirty-two of whom were tried on 
Dctober 30, 1662, for obstinate refusal to repair unto 
1 church or chapel, and being present at an unlawful 
issembly or conventicle, and were sentenced to be im- 
prisoned for three months, and after that time to abjure 
:he realm or be proceeded against as felons. — Besse's 
Sufferings of the Quakers,' vol. i., p. 690. 


T . A 

R. neere . gvildford— A postman with a staff and 
bag, and wearing a high-crowned hat. 

r\ w 


T . A 

R. neere . gvildford = A postman with a staff and 
bag, and wearing a high-crowned hat. 

There are two varieties of this token, one in which 
the ^ on the obverse is plain and solid and the other has 
the centre strokes overlapping each other at their junctions, 
thus, ^/". 

The mark ^ is deeply cut in the stonework or 
Compton Church in several places. Might not this 
refer to this issuer, as he is expressly mentioned as 
residing: ' neere ' Guildford ? 



T . A 

R. neere . gvildford = A postman with a staff and 
bag, wearing a low-crowned hat and bag-wig. 

0. \ Struck with the obverse of one, and the reverse 

R. ) of the other. 

Of their issuer nothing is known. It is termed the 
Postman's Token. 

Following the proclamation of 1672, previously re- 
ferred to, the issue of copper regal money supplied the 
desired small change ; and this issue continued during 
the reigns of James II., William and Mary, and 
William III., and also to a certain extent in Queen 
Anne's, although in this reign very little copper money 
was struck. 

George I. and George II. also struck considerable 
copper currency ; but during the succeeding reign, that 
of George III., we again see our familiar friends, the 
tokens, of which the first struck was by the Paris Mines 
Company, in the island of Anglesey, for payment ot 
their employes. They issued their token in 1 7^7? 
which was one ounce of pure copper, actually and 
intrinsically worth the one penny, and this was followed 
in 1788 by the halfpenny to correspond. 

Following them, came a very extensive copper cur- 
rency of considerable interest, the issues of which were 
frequently very beautifully struck, and of high artistic 
merit. They frequently represent buildings that have now 
ceased to exist, and often commemorated the rise of 



rrading families that have now reached the position 
3f merchant princes. They often also represent old 
methods of manufacture, as hat-making, weaving, and 
iron-working, and as often point to the opening of 
public buildings and institutions, as the Botanical Gardens 
it Bath, and others. 

It is supposed that some 900 tons of copper were used 
for the issue of these tokens, and they form a kind of 
medallic history of the period. 

Surrey was not behindhand in their issue, and the 
following are known to have been issued for Guildford : 

1. 0. gvildford . tower . surry = A fortress in 

R. British penny, 1797. = A globe between a 

rose and a thistle. 
Edge. I promise to pay on demand the bearer one 

Exergue. Jacobs. 

2. 0. GUILDFORD TOWER, SURRY. = Castle ill ruins. 

R. The arms of London between two palm 


Exergue. Jacobs. 


Bishop Blaize carrying a woolcomb ; in base 
a woolsack. 
R. gvildford halfpenny. = Castle, in base a 
lion couchant. 

4. Variety as above, but struck in bronze. 


Bishop Blaize with a woolcomb, at base a 
lion couchant. 



Shield bearing the arms of London, sur- , 
mounted with a crown. 

6. 0. gvildford halfpenny. = A castle, in base a 

lion couchant. 
R. A Druid's head to the left, in an oaken 


Bishop Blaize with a woolcomb, in base a 
R. peace . plenty and liberty. = A wheatsheaf. 

: ! 

Chapter IV 


A T the lower end of North Street, where the old 
-*~^Militia Barracks and the present printing office 
of the Surrey Times now stand, there used to exist a 
Dominican Friary. 

Its grounds must have extended on both sides of the 
river, but were probably divided by a lane or pathway 
belonging to the town, as we read of a foot-bridge 
erected by them to their * walnut wood.' Their ground 
probably also covered the space now occupied by the 
Electric Light Works and the various offices near the 
new bridge, extending on the opposite bank of the river 
into part of what is now Farnham Road. 

The Friars have left their name in Friary Street, and 
for some years the district round about that street was 
a parish in itself, which had not possessed a parish church 
since the destruction in the sixteenth century of the 
church of the Friary. 

Nothing now remains in the way of stone-work that 
can be identified with the original buildings, and, as will 
be seen presently, most of the building materials were 
carried away to Shalford, and were used in building 
Shalford House. The only treasure from the Friar) 
which Guildford possesses consists in the central portion 
of the windows in Abbot's Hospital, said to have been 
purchased by George Abbot from the Friary buildings, 
and very largely added to by him before he fitted them 
into the chapel of his hospital. Some references occur 
later on as to these windows. 

The Friary had a long and eventful history, and after 



its dissolution its buildings served many purposes. The 
information accessible to the public up to the present 
time has been of a disjointed and irregular character, 
but it is believed that the following pages contain an 
accurate and continuous history of this interesting founda- 
tion, which has left its mark upon the nomenclature of 
Guildford streets. 

The order of the Dominican Friars was founded by a 
Spaniard named St. Dominic, a canon of the diocese of 
Osma, in Castile, at the close of the twelfth century. 
They were called Dominicans from the name of their 
founder, but were better known in England as Preaching 
Friars, or Black Friars from the colour of part of their 
habit. Their rule was an Augustine one, approved at 
Rome in 121 6 by Pope Honorius III. They first came 
to England at the request of Peter de Rupibus, Bishop 
of Winchester, in 1221, and speedily established a .strong 
position in this country. Some of their largest friaries 
were at Warwick, Canterbury, Stamford, Chelmsford, 
Ipswich, Norwich, Thetford, Exeter and Brecknock. 
The Friar who came over first to England was Gilbert 
de Fresnoy, and he brought twelve brothers with him.' 
The earliest house founded in this country was at 
Oxford ; soon afterwards a friary was established in 

Peter de Rupibus died in 1238 at his castle in 
Farnham, and there is a somewhat strange story to be. 
told about his remains. His body was buried at Win- { 
Chester in the Cathedral, but his heart was interred at 
Waverley Abbey, as he had taken great interest in that 
foundation of the Cistercians. About the year 173c 
this heart was discovered by some persons who were 
digging in the ruins of the Abbey, and was removed 
from its sacred resting-place and brought into Guildford. 
When Manning and Bray wrote their history of the 


county at the beginning of the last century, it was in 
the possession of Mr. John Martyr, a barrister of Guild- 
ford, living in the High Street, where Mr. Bull's shop 
now is, and his father, the town clerk, had received it 
from Mr. Child, a former owner of Waverley, who had 
built the house in which the Martyrs resided. The 
heart is believed to have been preserved in Guildford 
in its original lead case down to 1830, but since that 
time it has been lost sight of, and no one now seems to 
know what has become of it. 

The earliest reference to the existence of the Domini- 
can Friars in Guildford occurs in 1258 (42 of Henry III.), 
when 'John Fitz Geoffry, a great man in his time and 
much in favour with his prince, happened to die near 
Guildford, which, when the King, who was then at St. 
Albans, heard, he caused Mass to be celebrated for his 
soul by the whole convent of Dominicans at Guildford, 
and forthwith gave orders to his treasurer, John dc 
Crakhile, to provide a cloth of gold to lay over his body 
when it was carried through London.' 

The friars were brought to Guildford by Queen 
Eleanor, the consort of King Henry III., but the exact 
date of their foundation in the town is not at present 

It is probable that at first they were but a small body, 
but, after a while, they acquired a much more important 
position. The Rev. C. R. F. Palmer, to whose impor- 
tant series of articles on the Friar Preachers much of the 
history of Guildford Friary is due, tells an interesting 
story about Prince Henry, the son of Edward I. and 
Queen Eleanor of Castile. 

This prince was a sickly child, and during the absence 
of his father and mother in the Crusades was left to the 
:are of his grandmother, Queen Eleanor of Provence. 
After the accession of Edward I. to the throne, a serious 


illness overtook the young prince, and on September 24, 
1273, he journeyed from Windsor to Guildford, and 
sojourned with the Dominican Friars whom his grand- 
mother had placed in the town. There large alms were 
given to the poor, and special Masses offered for the lad's 
recovery. J 

Prince Henry and his sister a little later on made < 
pilgrimages to various special shrines at Faversham, 
Rochester, Merton, and other places, were present 
at their father's coronation on August 19th, and were 
back in Windsor on August 26th, 1274. The 
prince, however, became no better, but was now very 
seriously ill, and was again brought down to Guildford 
in 1274. Masses of the Holy Ghost were celebrated at 
St. Mary's on the Friars' altar, and also in the Friary 
Chapel, on his behalf, and oblations and alms were 
offered. Candies, syrups, and medicines were sent for 
with all speed from London, but the heir to the throne 
was dying, and nothing could stem the progress of the 
fell disease. 

On Saturday, October 20th, all was over, and, as the 
household roll attests, i Hac die obit Dominus Henricus.' 
On the 24th of the same month, the records discovered 
by Mr. Palmer tell us that three Masses were celebrated 
for the repose of his soul at St. Mary's, the corpse wa> 
embalmed, wax candles to the weight of 150 pounds 
were burned, the church was censed, and large alms, 
of silver were distributed to the poor, and then from | 
Guildford the melancholy procession started, bearing the 
poor lad's body by way of Merton up to Westminstei 
for interment in the Abbey. 

The death of the prince in Guildford had invested the 
old place with a pathetic interest. Both to the Queen 
Dowager Eleanor of Provence, and to the Queen Mothei 
Eleanor of Castile, the prince was very dear, and upon ' 



his life were centred many hopes. Upon his decease, 
the two Queens, who were frequently at the palace of 
Guildford, in which Henry III. had specially fitted up a 
suite of rooms for his daughter-in-law, Queen Eleanor, 
seem to have decided that the Friar Preachers should 
have an important home wherein a perpetual memory of 
their lost one could be cherished. 

The heart of Prince Henry was deposited in the 
:hurch, and solemnly exposed on the anniversaries of his 
decease, while, as the day came round, various members 
of the Royal Family made special effort to attend the 
-equiems. On May 17th, 1306, we read of Prince 
Thomas and Prince Edmund, sons of King Edward by a 
second wife, being present at a requiem Mass for the 
-epose of the soul of their half-brother. 

In 1274 * Edward I. granted a license to the friars to 

enlarge their ground by taking in a contiguous road 

eading from Guildford to the King's Park. They also 

lad permission to cross the river by a wooden foot-bridge 

ind to take in the large wood on the opposite side, 

vhere there were many trees. It would appear from 

his permission as though North Street at that time 

extended right down to the river, and it is probable that 

here was a sort of drawbridge connecting it with the 

tCing's Park on the other side. Of the walnut trees 

slanted by the friars we have a record still, seven 

mndred years afterwards, in the name of the road, 

vValnut-tree Close, so persistent are place-names in 

his country. There is one walnut tree still standing 

n the road. 

In 1279, John, the son of Alan Feyrchild, gave to the 
)rethren and to their successors for ever all the land 
vhich they held of him in pure and perpetual alms.t 

* Cart 3 Edward I., n. 14. 

f Place. Com. Surrey. Ed. I. Azziz. Rot. III. 


This gift was given before the King's justices at Guild- 
ford, and would seem to be the site for the house or for 
the church. From the obituary of the Friary we learn 
the names of other generous benefactors who assisted the 
friars. John de Westpurle gave timber and ^IOO to- 
wards building the dormitory. Sir Hugh Fitz Otho 
built the choir at his own cost, and the lady named 
Clarisse, who is said to have been his sister, paid for the 
stalls. Peter de Fernham gave a book called 'A Body of 
Civil Law,' to the library. Robert de Stoughton gave 
20s. a year, arising out of some land, for ever. Other 
benefactors gave land called Brydelande (now called 
Bridley), and other land called Brokewood (now called 
Brookwood), both near Woking, to the friars, and Gilbert 
de Stoughton in 1 5 1 6 granted them 40s. a year out of 
his property in the town. 

There are references also in the same manuscripts to 
presents from the Kings and their families. Edward II. 
gave 8s. to the friars through William de Gildford, who 
was Prior at that time ; Edward III visited the Friary 
on several occasions, each time leaving behind him sub- 
stantial presents, and in 1336 we read of the twenty 
friars going out in procession to meet the King and 
welcome him into the town. 

Henry VI. and the Royal family lodged with the Friar 
Preachers on the 12th of February, 1423, and made them 
a present of 40s. for the damage that had been done to 
the house, the vessels and the gardens in entertaining the 
Royal guests. 

Henry VII. granted the friars all the fallen wood out 
of his park as fire-wood, but there is no reference to any 
monetary payments from this Royal miser. 

Henry VIII. , however, bestowed many gifts upon 
them, his largest monetary present, the sum of £$ y 
being given on the 29th of July, 1 53 1 . His daughter, 


Princess Mary, afterwards Queen Mary, in July, 1537, 
visited the friars and gave them 7s. 6d. * 

Other gifts recorded in manuscripts relating to the 
Friary are as follows : 

Several books and sums of money from Richard de 
Rudham, Rector of Compton. 

A croft of land, which is believed to have been the 
Friars' Croft referred to later on, from Thomas Genys, 
who died on the 10th August, 1508, and was buried in 
Compton Church. His monument is a stone of Purbeck 
marble inlaid with figures, which is in the middle of the 

A book, ' Summa Summarum,' from John Wyse. 

'A good goblet with a cover,' from Thomas Stedman 
and Elizabeth his wife, and a precious chalice from John 

An important bequest was that made by Sir Reginald 
Bray on the 4th August, 1503, when he left £200, to be 
paid at the rate of £10 a year to the friars, that they 
might say Mass for the soul of his wife, his father, and 
his mother, and for his own soul. 

The obituary from which these references are taken is 

in the library at Cambridge,t and there is a transcript of 

it by Tanner in the Bodleian. J It records a very long 

list of Priors, of whom the following may be mentioned: 

Bernard Herman, Prior in 1373, ob. 21st July. 

Robert Tenoues, ob. 26th April, 1404. 

Richard ob. 28th May, 141 5. 

John Venables, ob. 14th April 141 9. 

I Thomas Wrockling, ob. 1st May, 1425. 

Thomas Tydman, Prior in 1462,^. 23rd January, 


* Royal Coll. Brit. Mus. 17. B. 28 Folio 216 . 

f L.L. II. 9. 

% M.S.S. 342. Folio 179. 


The following were also Priors, but, with one excep- 
tion, their order is uncertain, owing to the omission of the 
year of their death in the obituary. As a rule the day of 
the death was most carefully chronicled, because on that 
date the deceased was commemorated in the Mass for the 

Nicholas Monyngton, ob. 29th April. 

John de Wonersh, ob. 23rd May. 

William de Fernham, ob. 24th July. 

John Gregory, ob. 16th August. 

John de Trottesworth, D.D., ob. 21st August. 

John Hook, D.D., ob. 28th August. 

Walter de Haveldersh, D.D., ob. 3rd September. 
(It is interesting to notice that Haldersh is still the 
name of one of the manors in Wonersh). 

William Andree, Bishop of Meath, ob. 28th 
(This man was rather an important Englishman, in 
other records called William Andrew. In 1374 he was 
consecrated Bishop of Aghado. In 1380 he was trans- 
lated by Urban VI. to the See of Meath, and he died on 
the 28th of September, 1385. He left the Dominican 
Friary of Guildford in 1374 for his first bishopric, but is 
recorded in the obituary in connection with the See of 
Meath, in which he died). 

John de Godalming, ob. 17th December. 

Marcellinus de Akorton, D.D., ob. 20th December. 
One or two other persons who were kind to the friars 
should be mentioned. Amongst them was Alice de 
Burgham, the wife of Thomas de Wintershull, Lord of 
Burgham or Burpham, who left them money in 1385 
(May 20th), arising out of land at Wintershull or Burp- 
ham, both of them places not far away from Guildford. 
Richard de Tangley should also be mentioned, as he 
left them a charge on his land near Wonersh. 


One of the friars, named Geoffrey, is mentioned as 
being master of the schools at Guildford, and it is there- 
fore clear that the friars had the oversight of the 
education of the place. (See also Chapter V.) 

Another one, Gilbert, who afterwards became Bishop 
of St. David's, was Vicar for the friars of St. Mary's 
Church, and had special charge of the parishioners of 
the Friary. 

The friars had a special license to hear confessions. 
This license which is recorded in the registry of the 
Bishop of Winchester was first discovered by the Rev. 
Charles Kerry, then living at Puttenham. It gave the 
friars permission to preach throughout the diocese of Win- 
chester, and to hear confessions wherever they went. 
Unfortunately this privilege was productive of much 
irregularity and disorder. It was resented by the paro- 
chial clergy as an encroachment upon their privileges, and 
they considered it a snare to their people. As long as 
their confessions were made to their regular priest, the 
people could not so easily avoid their religious obligations, 
but, when friars who knew nothing of them personally 
came amongst them, there was an inclination to make 
light of confession and penance ; and it was this permis- 
sion that brought the friars into disrepute, and caused 
them to be ridiculed and burlesqued. 

They appear to have had a somewhat important library 
at the Friary, and Leland mentions that it contained, 
besides the 'Body of Civil Law,' and 'Summa Summarum' 
already mentioned, a treatise by Fitz Acer upon the four 
books of ' Sentences by St. Thomas Aquinas,' the ' Life 
of St. Germaeus,' a volume of rhetoric called 'Soluta 
Oratione,' an exposition of the rule of St. Augustine, and 
a life of St. Jerome in Spanish. 

By 1537, the friars appear, however, to have been 
reduced to poverty. Alms and tithes at that time were 


not being regularly paid, and much of the land held by 
the Friary was unproductive. A petition praying for the 
King's bounty was therefore addressed to Henry VIII.* 

Mr. Palmer, in his article on the Friar Preachers, 
gives it in extenso. It is pathetic and piteous in its tone, 
but not without a sturdy English ring, and, in answer, 
a pension of twenty marks per annum was granted to the 
Friars, commencing from Easter, 1536. It appears, 
however, to have been only paid for one year, and then 
came the time of evil days, and the dissolution of the old 
monastic house was at hand. 

In a letter of 1537, William Fitz William, the Lord 
Admiral, wrote from Guildford to Thomas Cromwell as 
follows : 

' And forasmoche as the frerer is but a little house, 
and will be sore pestred at the King's being there as 
meseemeth, the parsonnarge of Sainct Nicholas which is 
neare shall be a mete house for yor lordship to lodge in 
for yor quietness and ease.' 

This refers to the visit of the King and his Chancellor, 
when the dissolution of the smaller houses was decided 
upon, and one of the chief deeds authorising this 
nefarious act was signed at the parsonage house of St. 
Nicholas in Guildford. The visit of desolation was 
made on October 10th, 1538, and the house surrendered 
to the commissioners of King Henry VIII. 

The original deed of surrender is among the Patent 
Rolls in the Record Office.t 

It is as follows : 

1 We, the p'or and covent of the black fryars of 
gylforde wt. one assent and cosent, wtowte any manr of 
coaccyon or cosell, do gyve owr house in to the hands 
of the lord vysytor to ye Kyngs use, deseryeryng hys 

* Historical Documents. Exchequer series, i. 350. 
f Pat. 29. Henry VIII., p. 2. m. 3. (40). 


grace to be goode and gracyous tous. In wyt tenes ew 
subscrybe owr namys wt. owr pper hands the x day of 
October, in ye xxxth yere of ye raygne of owr moste 
dred soureyn lorde Kynge Henry ye viijth. 

i William Cobden, Prior. 

1 William Dale. 

' Robert Merton. 

1 Philip Stawfford. 

* Jo Gyns (? Genyns). 
<(? Friar) JolvanV Fort. 

* Thomas Hopkyn.' 
These are the names of the seven brethren at the 


With this deed is a most interesting Inventory of 
the contents of the Friary, and for the following notes 
upon it we are indebted to that indefatigable anti- 
quary, the Rev. Charles Kerry, late of Puttcnham. The 
Inventory reads as follows : 

i " The blacke freers of Gilforde." 

* This indenture makith mencyon of all th'stuffe 
remayning in the howse of the blacke ffreerys in gilforde 
receyveyed by the lord vysitor vnder the lorde pVey seale 
and delevryd to John Dabarne, meyer, to Daniell mugge 
to see and order to the kingis use wt. the howse and all 
the apptenaunce till the kingis plesure be further knowen. 


* It. at ye hey altr a feyer Tabill of alabaster.' 
Obviously the reredos — the word feyer means beautiful, 

good y ornate — it may have had figures upon it in basso- 

'It. at ye endis of the altr tabyllys peyntid wt. 

The Dominicans were pre-eminent for their love of 
the fine arts. They produced from their own com- 
munity two most excellent painters who have drawn 


their inspiration from religious influences : Angelico 
de Fiesole and Bartolomeo della Porta. ' I should 
call them (says Mrs. Jamieson) emphatically religious 
painters in contradistinction to the mere church painters.' 

How one would like to have seen those old ' tabyllys 
peyntid wt. ymagery ' ! The great beauty of the 
Friary Church will not fail to be noticed as we proceed. 

' It. a tabernakill owr the alt' wt. an ymage of our 

Probably an image of the Virgin with a canopy over 
it, for in those times the Host was reserved in a c pyx y 9 
usually suspended from the roof. 

' It. before ye altr a clothe hangyng of clothe of bad- 
kin with a frontlyt of motley velvit.' 

This baudekin was a rich and precious kind of stuff 
introduced into England in the thirteenth century. It 
is said to have been composed of silk interwoven with 
threads of gold in a most sumptuous manner. 

This must have been an early offering of some bene- 

1 It. an ant clothe on ye alt. 

' It. a canapey owr ye sacrament ; at eche of ye altr a 
frame for an altr.' 

I suppose for temporary altars on particular occasions. 

' It. ij gret candelstickis of laten. 

' It. a feyer egill (or eagle) for a lecturne laten. 

' It. a feyer stallys well fileid wt. an orgeyne loft.' 

Here again beautiful stalls well carved or decorated. 
There is an organ in the stalls of Amiens Cathedral. 

1 It. a peyer of orgaynys.' 

That is, an organ with two stops or two rows of 
pipes. Common in olden times. (Melody only.) 

' It. ij pore lecternys tymber. 

i It. a tu'be (or tomb) wt. a marbill stone on ye north 
side of ye quere. 


' It. vnder the stepill a feyer lofte. Under yt a 

From this we perceive that the i stepill ' stood between 
the body of the church and the choir, or chancel. The 
rood screen stretched across, and within, on the eastern 
side, was a stall — the seat of the prior, on the south side 
of the gateway. The rood loft is described as feyer; i.e., 

4 It. In the stepill, ij bellys, a gret and a small.' 

Now follows the Inventory of the contents of the 
body of the church. 

4 "The chirche." 

' It. a proper chapell sileid wt. a tabyll alabastr our 
ye altr.' 

This is a chauntry, c proper,' that is, peculiar, to some 
person or family. Possibly, it might form a transept. 
Observe the alabaster table is over the altar, and not 
on it. It was the reredos. The chapel was ' sileid f that 
is, vaulted with stone. It does not seem to have been 
merely a part of an aisle, but something distinct. 

* It. a feyre deske wtin ye p'tclose (or parclose).' 
The parclose is the space within the altar rails. 

* It. ij setis to knele before ye alt.' 

Perhaps ' fald-stools ' or kneeling-desks. These are 
obviously in the sileid chapel. 

* It. ij other aulters in the chirche wtin the p'tclose, 
wt. tabillys allabaster. 

before eche alt' a feyre sete wtin ye p'tclose. 
ij setis to knele before eche altr. 
4 It. a tube (or tomb) of marbill and a feyre candelbeme 
newe wtout ye p'tclose.' 

It is possible that this was the tomb of Joan Bra)', 
because of the neiv i candlebeme,' which was to can) 
lights on the day of the obit and during the month's 


* It. iij tabyllys allabastr on iij frameis for aulterys. 

ii pueis [pews) with diuerse other setis. 
* " The vestrey." 

* It. ij feyer framys for vestmentis wt. allmerys and a 
borde to lay on vestments.' 

The ' framys ' were made to swing in and out of a 
press. They consisted of a horizontal bar attached to an 
upright post on a pivot, and were arranged on each side 
of the press, so as to fold in one after the other. 

4 Allmerys ' are safes, or strong cupboards. 

' It. The uppar p'te of the sepulcre wood.'' 

Some portion of the Easter Sepulchre. A receptacle 
for the Host on Good Friday evening, over which 
watch was kept until Easter Day morning, when it 
was removed or lifted out with great rejoicing in honour 
of the Resurrection. 

We have now done with the church. 

' In " The gret Kechin " were : 

* It. a grat leade in a furnas. 

' It. ij gret chimneis wt. racks to rost. 
i It. ij chopping bordis and in ye ennrhowse a cestrne 
of leade to watr barley. 

' In " The entre betwix bothe kechinns." 

* ij setis framys to sett on. 

< In " The littill kechin." 

* It. ij frameis of leade to watr fishe. 
1 It. dressing bordis. 

1 " The Pastrie." 

* It. a gret boltinge hoche. 

i It. a gret trow e to knede in, wt. a borde owr yt. 
4 It. ij molding bordis : an old trow e under. 

* It. in ye ynnr howse, a hotche for brede. 
i It. a gret chopping borde. 

4 It. another small borde, and a planke wt. rackes of 
wood to hange flesche. 


1 " In the yarde." 

'It. a feyer well, wt. buckett and chenys to draw 

' Besides ys, because yer was gret clamor for dettis, the 
wch. drew above x//., wherfor all ye stuff of ye vestre, 
the wch. was very pore, was solid for vij//. and xs. y the 
wch. was all oweing abrode, beside yr bretherne and 
srvaunts for their payement. all ye stuffe of ye kechen 
and buttrey, wt. ij candel stickis of ye quire, wt. ye pore 
bedding was all sold, and the holl money payed excepte 
xvj*. viiyl.y the wch. payde the visitorys costis. And 
yns the visitor chargeid Sr. Wm. Cobden lately p'or yr 
wt. ye Kingis loging, wt. all such implementis as he 
before was chargid wt. by ye Kingis officerys. And 
beside yt, d'd to ye seid Wm. Cobden x platerys, vj 
discheis and iiij sawcerys, the wch war markid wt. the 
Kingis marke, to kepe ye seid vessell wtyn ye login and 
aptemente till ye Kingis plesure be furtr knowen. And 
ye seid visitor hathe wt. him to ye Kingis use in plate 
(broke and holl) xx unc and v unc, and yns he depteid. 

' by me John Dabor' mayer, 
1 by me daniell mugge. 
4 Treas. of Rec. of Exch., Vol. B. 2-19. Submissions 
of Monasteries 9 and 10.' 

Manning and Bray, on the authority of a MS. in the 
prossession of George, Lord Onslow, state that Henry 
VIII. built a house on the site of the old Friary, and, 
according to Russell, this was considered the principal 
house in the royal manor, and in this house the King 
was probably resident in 1546, when Charles Brandon, 
Duke of Suffolk, grand master of his household, died 

Mr. Kerry, however, thought it probable that the 
King merely repaired the existing buildings, and made 
them more commodious for his use. The inventory has 


already informed us that these buildings consisted of the 
church, including a choir or chancel, a tower in the 
centre, a nave, a ' proper ' or chauntry chapel, and a 
vestry. The domestic buildings included : I, a great 
kitchen with its inner house ; 2, a little kitchen with its 
inner house, both kitchens being separated by a passage ; 
3, the pastry or bakehouse, with ovens ; 4, the great 
room or great house, used for a barn in 1606 ; 5, the 
dormitory, or upper chamber, already mentioned as the 
work and gift of John de Westpurle. 

There is a curious letter amongst the Loseley MSS., 
dated 27th September, 1575, from Anthony, Viscount 
Montague, to Sir William More, from Cowdray. It 
is touching the recent outbreaks of fire at Gilford 
Manor House, and the reasons for attributing them to 
the malice of one Fuller and his wife, who had charge of 
the house, and were the only persons living in it. 

It speaks of * the ghost of a monk or friar which so 
greatly alarmed Mrs. Fuller,' and this seems to identify 
the ' Manor House ' with the old Friary. From the 
Loseley MSS. we obtain another letter referring to the 
Friary, 27th August, 1 57 1 — a letter from the celebrated 
Lord Burleigh to Sir William More (then Mr. William , 
More). It opens with an announcement that, when at 
Guildford the other day, * Lord Burleigh, after viewing 
the Frierie there, made a rude trick (or sketch) thereof in 
manner of a platt (or plan) with his owne hand,' which 
sketch was entrusted to one Mr. More or Mr. Wollesy's 
servants to match, ' who offered to make the same more 
pe-fitlin ' (or befitting). This person having neglected 
to return the drawing, Mr. More is requested to see 
that he accomplishes his promise to Lord Burleigh in 
respect to the same. 

Beyond these letters no further information has at 
present been procured as to the house that we believe 


Henry VIII. obtained in the altered buildings of the Old 
Friary. The only other relic of this building is the 
well at one time in the Fox and Den (originally Foss 
and Dene) Field, near Guildford, from which the friars 
obtained their supply of water, and which, with rare 
judgment, they dug in a position where an ample supply 
of excellent water was to be got. The early wooden 
pipes and the later thick leaden ones have occasionally 
been discovered in digging near, but the old well has 
now been covered up and cottages erected on its site. 
The plot of land was at one time known as Priors Croft 
(already alluded to) and the parchments relating to it 
might reveal some interesting facts respecting its earlier 
history and possessors. After the dissolution of the 
Priory the ground was held by Henry Polsted under 
the Crown, and continued as Crown demesne until at 
least 1590. 

We have already stated that the two very fine stained- 
glass windows in the chapel of the Hospital of the Holy 
Trinity at Guildford were removed by Archbishop 
Abbot, the founder, from the Church of the Friary. 

A contemporary authority, Dr. Ducarel, states em- 
phatically that this was the case. The windows are 
extremely fine of their kind, and much of the glass they 
contain is of a date earlier than that of the foundation of 
the Hospital ; but in their present state they were clearly 
made for the position, and the arms of Abbot 
impaling Canterbury, and the other similar heraldic 
devices, prove that they were put together expressly for 
the chapel of the Hospital. 

It is probable that some of the lights originally 
belonged to the Friary and were utilised by the Arch- 
bishop, and, from the appearance of the glass, we think 
I this theory may be fairly deduced, and would form the 
basis for the statement of Dr. Ducarel. Many authori- 



ties upon stained-glass have given it as their opinion that 
one window is of a much older date than the other, and 
we are disposed to believe that this older glass came from 
the Friary Church, and that it was used by Abbot in 
his work. It probably formed the motif for the whole 
design, and was incorporated with other glass to form the 
beautiful windows. 

The location of the Friary near to the King's Park 
was of great value to the inhabitants, and, doubtless, 
through the King's bounty, they were well supplied with 
deer and game, although we read of no special permission 
for such provision. From the fact of Henry VIII. 
residing here, the old Palace of Guildford already alluded 
to was probably now uninhabitable, and we expect that 
Edward VI. (whose benefaction to the Royal Grammar 
School gives importance to his name in the ears of 
Guildford people) resided here when visiting the town. 

We are told by Bishop Burnet in his Journal that the 
King was at this town in June and August, 1550, and 
in July, 1552. Sir Michael Stanhope was in 1550 
warden of the manor, but, becoming involved in the 
ruin of his patron, the imprudent Earl of Hertford, he 
was beheaded in 1 5 5 1 , and, upon the second visit of King 
Edward in 1552, he would find the newly-appointed 
warden, William Parr, Marquis of Northampton, in 

The Marquis was one of those concerned in the plot 
for raising Lady Jane Grey, wife of Lord Guildford 
Dudley, to the throne ; and, upon the accession of Queen 
Mary and the discomfiture of the Duke of Northumber- 
land and the party of Lady Jane Grey, Lord Northamp- 
ton was deprived of his honours and committed to the 
Tower. Anthony Browne, Viscount Montagu, Lord 
Chamberlain to Queen Mary, was made keeper of 
Guildford Manor in his stead. He died on October 19th, 


1592, and was in his turn succeeded in his office at 
Guildford by Sir Thomas Gorges, who had married the 
widow of the Marquis of Northampton. James I. early 
in his reign demised the estate to Sir George More, Knt., 
of Loseley, and on April 6th, 1606, Sir George More 
leased the Friary to George Austen, Gent. 

This George Austen, on May 23rd following, 
executed a deed to Sir George More, in which he 
covenanted * to pull down and carry away within one 
year all the timber, tile, brick, and stone which might 
be had or taken of the old great kitchen — the great 
xoom or house, then used for a barn — and all the 
stone wall from the said great house courtyard westward.' 
This deed Mr. Kerry found amongst the Loseley MSS. 

It is curious to note that the provisions of this agree- 
ment are not only to pull down but to carry away all 
the materials of the buildings named. Had Austen 
intended to build a house, clearly he would have 
required the old material, or at least — in those days 
when material was costly, but labour cheap — he would 
have used some of the old stone, timber, brick or tile. 
We have now arrived at what is probably the period in 
the history of the Friary when it was demolished ; but, 
contrary to the accepted belief, we consider no new 
building had up to that time been erected on the site. 
On September 19th, 1605, by letters patent, James I. 
granted the beneficial interest in Guildford Manor and 
estate, once held under the Crown, as before stated, by 
Sir Thomas Gorges, to his servant, John Murray ; but 
until the death of Gorges in 161 1 Murray did not derive 
any benefit from the grant. 

On November 22nd, 1620, James I. made a further 
grant, giving the office of keeper of Guildford Park to 
Murray, and granting what is then called, ' the vacant 
site of the late house of Friary Preachers, in or near the 


town of Guildford, to be held by him, his wife and his 
heirs male for ever at a Crown rental of 50s. a year by 
fealty only in free and common socage, * together with 
the deep in the park and free warren in the same.' 

This deed, which is a most valuable piece of evidence, 
disposes of the old theory that George Austen, according 
to Manning and Bray and other authorities, built a house 
previous to this on the old site. Murray now purchased 
of George Austen any interest he had in the land, and 
any materials then remaining ; and in his purchase the 
site is most definitely described as ' between the streete 
called the Friery Lane and a messuage or garden then or 
late belonging to the heirs of Thomas Snelling on the 
South. — The King's highway leading from the said street 
to the Highway called North Town Ditch on the South 
East. — The highway leading from the said North Town 
Ditch towards Woodbridge on the East. — And a parcel 
of land called the " Lee " on the North, and the rivulet 
called the Water of Waye on the West.' In August, 
1622, Murray was raised to the peerage as Baron 
Murray, at Lochmaben, and on March 13th, 1624, 
created Viscount Annan and Earl of Annandale. Up to 
this time Lord Annandale does not appear to have 
resided on his manor, and in all probability there was no 
house in which he could so reside, but it is clear that 
about this time he made preparations for the erection of 
a house. James I. had now died, and Charles I. had 
come to the throne, and in the sixth year of that King's 
reign (1630) Lord Annandale paid into the Treasury the 
very large sum of ^5,000, and, passing back his rights as 
keeper to the Crown, obtained an absolute grant of the 
land of the fee simple instead of fee tail. The letters 
patent are dated March 31st, 1630,! and they vest in 

* Pat. 18 Jas. I., p. 6, m. 9. 
f Pat. 6 Car. I., p. 8, No. 2. 

THE FRIARY, circa 1705. 
From a ivater colour drawing said to have been done for the Colipall family. 


him and his heirs and assigns for ever the fee simple of 
the King's lands, tenements, etc., at Guildford, including 
the Friary, to be held of the King by fealty only in free 
and common socage, at a rent of 50s. per annum. 
Brayley and Britten, confusing this grant with the 
previous one of 1620, which grants the lands in tail male, 
give the rent as the fourth of a knight fee ; that is £10. 
They are in error, as this grant did not give them in 
chief or by knight's service, but by fealty in socage, at a 
rent of 50s. per annum. 

There is another error in their history, touching an 
important episode in the time of Henry III. which the 
historians connect with this Friary, but which really 
concerns the Crutched Friars of Guildford, and to this 
we shall refer in a later chapter. 

The Earl now possessed the lands in perpetuity in fee 
simple, and forthwith set about building the mansion 
referred to by Manning and Bray. 

The mansion was built for the most part of chalk, 
with squares of flint regularly interspersed, and Manning 
and Bray describe it as having an elegant portico of the 
Doric order at the entrance in the style of Inigo Jones. 
This porch, it need hardly be observed, was an addition of 
much later date than the front of the house, but the 
building on the whole was not without a certain pleasing 
picturesqueness. Lord Annandale died in 1640, and the 
estate descended to his son James, Earl of Annandale, 
who by deeds of lease and release dated June 8th and 
10th, 1 64 1, sold it to James Maxwell, his cousin-german, 
who in 1646 became Earl of Dyrlton. 

Lord Dyrlton gave it by deed of April 27th, 1650, to 
Elizabeth, his eldest daughter, wife of William, Duke of 
Hamilton. After the death of the Duke of Hamilton 
the Duchess married Thomas Dalmahoy, and prior to 
her marriage she executed deeds dated April 22nd and 


25th, 1653, conveying the land and premises to her 
intended husband and his heirs for ever. The Duchess 
died in 1659, anc ^ Dalmahoy sold the estate in 1681 to 
Elizabeth Colwall, widow. From her it descended to 
her grandson Daniel, whose mother, Susan Anlaby, was 
an ancestress of the present Earl of Onslow. 

Daniel Colwall was a notable man in his time. He 
was one of the founders of the Royal Society, of 
which he became treasurer in 1666. He was very 
largely instrumental in founding the Museum of the 
Royal Society, presenting to it his collection of natural 
rarities and a cabinet of shells. We also learn * that 
he was a member of the Council in 1664-65, and 
received the public thanks of the Society for ' his 
generous benefaction' on March 21st, 1665-66. His 
portrait, by R. White, is prefixed to the very superficial 
description of the Museum published in folio by Dr. 
Nehemiah Grew in 1681, and no less than thirty-two 
of the folio plates in this work were executed at his cost. 
Unhappily, the unfortunate gentleman ended his life in 
the Friary House by a pistol-shot, and the chair stained 
with his blood was long preserved in the house. 

This ghastly relic was presented by George, Earl or 
Onslow, to the master's apartments in Abbot's Hospital, 
where it is still to be seen with the dark blood marks 
upon it undefaced. Strangely enough, Colwall was 
buried in the middle of the south aisle of St. Mary's, 
Guildford, and we can only suppose that his learning 
and importance gained for his remains the distinction of 
burial in consecrated ground, usually debarred to those 
who commit self-murder. 

ColwalPs estate was devised to trustees, and under a 
decree of Chancery the whole was offered for sale on 
July 15th, 1708. Brayley informs us that the manor 

* Birch's Hist. Roy. Soc, vol. ii., p. 73. 


From a water colon) drawing. 



and park were purchased by the Hon. Thomas Onslow, 
eldest son of Sir Richard Onslow, Bart., the first Speaker 
of the House of Commons of that name. He deparked 
the land, and divided it into four farms. The manor 
estates descended at his decease to Richard, Lord Onslow, 
his son. The Friary estates passed through the hands of 
several small owners, until at length they were purchased 
in 1736 by the Right Hon. Arthur Onslow, the second 
Speaker of the family. In his person, therefore, the 
whole estate (save a small portion owned by a man John 
Russell) was once more united. 

In 1759, on June 2nd, an Act was passed settling and 
limiting the use of the estate,* and the property became 
a portion of the entailed Onslow estate. In 1780 the 
house built by Lord Annandale, which Russell in his 
third edition, page 145, most strangely describes as of 
Gothic order, instead of Renaissance, was altered. 
Russell states that the pinnacles had already been 
removed and modern windows inserted, and that this 
much spoilt the appearance of the house. 

Two interesting water-colour sketches, in the posses- 
sion of Mrs. Butler, of Guildford, which have been 
most kindly lent, show the old house and the porch 
after this alteration. 

The picturesque dormer windows and gables have 
disappeared ; the windows below are plain and ugly ; 
the string course and other stonework had been removed 
from the doorways, and the whole front either covered 
with stucco or painted, and the flint decoration entirely 
obscured. The house at that date looked extremely 
plain, and the fine clump of trees at the entrance and the 
quaint palisading around had all gone, so that the house 
had a stern military look about it. 

There was evidently an important room in the house, 

* Jour. House of Com., xxviii. 625. 


as Russell states that assemblies and public breakfasts 
were held there. A further alteration took place in 
1794, when the house was converted into barracks ; and 
then Russell tells us with puzzling complication that 
i the chapel which had been used for a barn many years 
now lodges a troop of soldiers.' 

We do not think this means that the chapel of the Friars 
was still remaining, as we know George Austen in 1606 
promised to pull down this building, and we also know 
that the land was referred to later on as a vacant site in 
the Royal Grants to Lord Annandale, but we imagine 
the chapel Russell mentions must have been the private 
chapel of Lord Annandale's house, then remaining. It 
is, however, possible, as Mr. Kerry suggests, that the 
new house was dovetailed into the old, and only such 
portions of the Friary pulled down as interfered with the 
general plan, but in this case we hardly think the site 
would have been termed in the grants the empty, void, 
or bereaved (viduous) site of the old Friary. During the 
time that the building was used as cavalry barracks it was 
again honoured by the presence of royalty — George IV. 
(when Prince of Wales), the Dukes of York, Cumber- 
land and Cambridge, visited and stayed in the place. On 
one occasion Elfi Bey, the Mameluke chief, with a 
numerous suite in splendid costume, came on a visit ot 
respect to the colonel and officers of the 23rd Dragoons, 
then stationed there, Elfi having been gallantly rescued 
by that regiment when in Egypt. On this occasion 
a public breakfast was given. In 181 8 the barracks, 
capable of containing a regiment 800 strong, were pulled 
down, and also all that remained of Lord Annandale's 
erection, and the stones, buildings and materials sold by 
Verrall and Son, in 612 lots, on May 7th, 181 8, on the 
spot. The catalogue was printed by the Russells, and 
filled 70 pages. 


* ft. 


The ground was let to Mr. W. Elkins, and used by 
the public, through his kindness, as a cricket and 
pleasure-ground. In 1840 the whole site was sold by 
the Government, the avenue of elms cut down and 
buildings erected in all directions. The late Mr. James 
Mangles bought much of the land, and laid out the street 
then called Friary Place, and on some of the precinct the 
Wesleyan Chapel was erected. No vestige of the early 
glory of the interesting building now remains. 

An earthen pot of human bones was discovered on 
May 29th, 1 78 1, and a leaden urn containing a heart 
preserved in spirit was exhumed at a later date. A 
skeleton and the bead of a rosary have also been found 
on the site. Guildford Manor Farm preserves the name 
of the old Manor and Park and possibly some of the 
stonework in North Street, and detached pieces of stone 
mouldings to be seen in some of the houses, may have 
belonged to Lord Annandale's house, but beyond that 
we have only the windows in Abbot's Hospital, Friary 
parish — a parish without a church since the days of the 
friars — and Friary Street, to remind us in this generation 
of the old home of the Dominican Friar Preachers in 


Chapter V 




' I A HERE are not many Grammar Schools that can 
"*- boast of so early a foundation as the one at 

Its original endowment came from one Robert 
Beckingham, a wealthy and generous grocer in the City of 
London. We hardly know anything whatever as to this 
person save that he was apprenticed to one Richard Rud, 
and that in i486, in the time of c Sir Thomas Hyll 
Alderman, Robert Ryvell and John Stark being Warden? 
of the Company,' he was admitted a freeman of the Citj 
of London in the Grocers' Company, and the usual fee 
of 3s. 4d. was paid for his admission to the freedom. 

He appears to have become a very wealthy man and 
to have continued a grocer and attached to his company, 
and we know that he died November 5th, 1509. He 
had a wife named Elizabeth, but her surname is not 
known, and he had a brother, Richard Beckingham, but 
does not seem to have had any family of his own. We 
learn from his will that his mother had married a second 
time and to one Robert Taillor, and we also learn that 
he had a godson and seems to have had charge or guar- 
dianship of two children, John and Joan Wyley, for 
whose maintenance and charge he made special bequests. 

A pious and a generous man he certainly was, as evi- 
denced by his many bequests to religious bodies, to the 
Church and to various altars, as also by his bequests not 
only to his executors and their families but also to his 


servants and dependents, but it is not at all clear why- 
he placed so important a benefaction in the town of 

It is probable that in the friendship he had for a certain 
Thomas Polsted, who resided in Stoke parish, the reason 
for his selection of this town may be found. Polsted was 
one of the executors to the will of Beckingham and 
was also an executor to the will of Beckingham's wife 
Elizabeth, and he was evidently a great friend of the 
family, as in his own will he bequeathed money for 
perpetual Masses to be said not only for the souls of 
himself and his own relations but also of Robert and 
Elizabeth Beckingham. Polsted was buried in Stoke 
Church, and the following was the inscription over his 
tomb : 

Of your Charity pray for the Soules of Thomas 
Polsted and Agnes his wyfe the which Thomas 
decessyed the XVday of March Ao D'ni 1528. 
Whose soul J'hu pardon. 

It is not clear whether Polsted was any relation to 
Beckingham nor can we at present find out the sur- 
name of his wife Agnes through whom the relationship 
may perchance have come. Polsted had one daughter, 
Margaret, and she married John Maynard, citizen and 
mercer of London, and in his will there again appears a 
reference to Masses being said for the soul of John 
Beckingham his friend. 

It may therefore have happened that Margaret Polsted 
going to London to her new home made the acquaint- 
ance of the worthy grocer Beckingham. She may have 
introduced him to her father and mother, and he may 
have been invited down to Guildford to see them and 
thus have got interested in the place and aware of the 
want of provision for a school in the town. Possibly, he 
may have himself taken a small house in the place as a 


country cottage, and this may have been the one that he 
gave eventually to the town, but all this is necessarily 
surmise resting upon the certain facts of the acquaintance 
of Polsted, his wife, his daughter and his son-in-law, with 
the wealthy grocer who so materially assisted the old 
town close to which they dwelt. 

The original papers of the Grammar School tell us that 
Robert Beckingham during his c liefe time ' gave to the 
town a messuage and garden close to the Castle Ditch 
value at that time 7 Marcs, i.e., £4. 13s. 4d., for the 
foundation of the School, and this gift appears to have 
been made in 1507, so that date would really appear to 
be that of the original foundation of the School. 

There are notes in the Record Office of a deed and 
fine dated St. John's Day (June 24th), 22nd year of 
Henry VII. (1507), conveying a house and garden at 
Guildford from Robert Beckingham, grocer, to John 
Polsted, and a similar one conveying land in the parish 
of St. Olave, Southwark, and it is probably the former 
one which records the original gift to Guildford. 

It is by no means clear, however, either from the town 
records or Grammar School's books, whether anything 
was done with this gift at the time and it would seem 
possible that it was too small for the purpose, but a couple 
of years afterwards Beckingham showed his desire to still 
further benefit the place by making a substantial bequest 
towards the maintenance of his Free School. It is only 
quite lately that the author has been able to find the will 
of the founder and, as it is a very important and interest- 
ing document, it is given in full at the end of this book, 
together with the will of Elizabeth Beckingham, an 
abstract of the will of Polsted, and the deed executed by 
Beckingham's executors. 

The majority of the bequests made by Beckingham 
had reference, it will be seen, to the parish of St. Olave, 

Page 92, line 17, for * John ' read * Thomas.' 


Southwark, where he desired to be buried, but, in the 
event of a certain brotherhood of Our Lady in that 
parish not being constituted by the parishioners into a 
corporation within two years after his decease, he be- 
queathed certain property which he had otherwise left to 
this brotherhood (after the decease of his wife Elizabeth) 
* to make a free schole at the towne of Guldford.' It 
would appear that the corporation he expected was never 
constituted and his executors, after waiting rather more 
than the specified time to see whether it would be formed, 
decided to carry out the alternative course suggested in 
the will and to establish the Free School in Guildford. 
This they proceeded to do in the fourth year of 
Henry VIII. , and the very interesting and instructive 
deed by which they carried out this foundation is still in 
the possession of the Governors of the School, and a full 
transcription of it has been given in the appendix to this 
book, inasmuch as it does not appear to have ever before 
been transcribed. 

It will be noticed in the deed that the executors speak 
of the maintenance rather than the foundation of the 
School, as though the small foundation was actually in 
existence, as it appears to have been, and they then 
proceed to invest the Mayor of the place with the rents 
of these lands and place upon him and the inhabitants 
of the town the duty of ever afterwards maintaining 
the School, calling upon the actual owners of the lands 
in question to carry out the duties of such maintenance 
if ever the town should neglect its duties. 

The clauses which provide for the election of new 
Trustees, on the death of the old ones, to be selected 
from c the most worshipful honest, sad and discreet gen- 
tilmen dwelling next the town and the most honest and 
substantial brethren of the town' are quaintly worded, and 
it is also worthy of attention that the executors laid down 


a strict rule enjoining the commemoration of the founder 
and his wife and c the souls of all the benefactors and 
maintainers of the School ' twice daily at the opening 
and at the closing of the School. 

It would also appear by the final clause that the 
Friary was given some connection with the School, and 
that the third part of the deed was held by the Prior in 
order, it is probable, that a supervision over the carrying 
out of the religious enactments may have been exercised 
by him. 

The lands at Bromley and Newington were unfortu- 
nately not actually conveyed but only fee farm rents 
of them at fixed sums, and these sums, as regards the 
Bromley lands, still remain the property of the School, 
but the lands at Newington have been lost and they did 
not belong to the School when Manning and Bray wrote 
their history of the county in 1804. 

The revenues at first amounted to over £20 per 
annum, but there still remained the difficulty as to where 
the School-house was to be erected. 

Probably for a few years the house given by Becking- 
ham was used as a school and the income, according to 
the town books, was supplemented by the Mayor and 
approved men out of their funds, in order that the 
School should be maintained, but in 1520 a change took 

On the 3rd of September in that year the Mayor and 
approved men gave a parcel of land adjoining the ditch 
of the Castle for the purpose of a school-house and upon 
it a school-house and a residence for the school-master 
were erected. 

The plot of land given by the Mayor in 1520 is thus 
described : ' 140 feet of a size in length, 129 feet of a 
size in breadth at the north and east end of the same 
parcel of land, and 60 feet of a size in breadth about the 


middle of the same parcel of land, and 48 feet of a size 
in breadth at the south end of the same parcel of land, 
and lieth on the south part of the said towne adjoyning 
to the ditch of the Castle towards the east and the tene- 
ment some time occupied by John Mounter and late 
John Snellinge likewise towards the east ; and the high- 
way there towards the north and in part of the west ; 
upon which parcel of land an house was built and occu- 
pied by Richard Wright, shereman.' 

It seems to be likely from the phraseology of the 
deeds that this parcel of land given by the Mayor and 
approved men was close to, even if not adjoining, the 
original gift of Robert Beckingham and it is certain that 
here it was that the first School-house was erected. 

It is not at all clear where this original school-house 
was situated, but, so far as the author has been able to 
trace, it was close to the land now occupied by the 
Town Baths. 

According to the rent roll of the School, in 1671, the 
house once used as a school-house was occupied by one 
John Larkin and was the property of the Governors of 
the School and yielding a rent of twenty shillings a year, 
but since that date its history is not known. 

There is no estate in Castle Street now belonging to 
the School, and either the original gift of Beckingham 
was sold after 1671 or the property has been lost. 

There are no rent rolls in existence to explain the 
matter, and most of the early records of the School have 
been lost long ago, while those that remain are in very 
sad condition and some of them can hardly be deci- 

It was thought at one time that, when the new plot of 
ground was purchased, the old estate of the School was 
sold, but it is quite clear that this was not the case, as, 
long after the new building had been completed, the 


entries of the property belonging to the School include 
both the site of the old School-house (given by the 
Mayor) and another property close by (the one given, no 
doubt, by Beckingham), but what became of them later 
on, it is impossible to say. 

Few charities have so suffered through the carelessness 
of trustees and the fraudulence of officials as has this one, 
and the Charity Commissioners some years ago, when 
they investigated the affairs of the School, stated that a 
large proportion of valuable estate had been lost for ever 
through the bad management of trustees of long ago. 
There is a fixed ground-rent now belonging to the 
School, arising out of a property, an undetermined part 
of which is in Castle Street, and it is quite possible that 
some of the freehold property which in 1671 belonged 
to the School has been at some time exchanged for fixed 
ground-rents such as this one. 

Whatever may have been the reason, the estate in 
Guildford given by Beckingham no longer belongs to the 
School, and it is the ground-rents at Bromley that keep 
alive the memory of that great benefactor. 

In 1550 the endowment of the School was augmented 
by a gift from Henry Polsted, the son of Thomas Polsted 
(dated 1 July, 1550, 4 Ed. VI.), who gave * two 
messuages neare the pillory in the parish of St. Mary 
for its maintenance worth £4. 15s. a year,' but the 
property, even with this addition, was not sufficient to 
maintain the School, and it was still a heavy burden 
upon the funds of the town. 

We have seen in a preceding chapter that the Domini- 
can Friars had charge of the education of the town ; 
and, by the suppression of the monastic houses, Guildford, 
like many other places, had lost very valuable assistance 
in education and the presence of teachers warmly inte- 
rested in the work. The endowment of various grammar 


schools in the kingdom by Edward VI. was at its very- 
best only an attempt to remedy the evil created by the 
sacrilegious spoliation of Henry VIII., and to give back to 
the various towns some of the property which the friars 
resident in their midst had used so wisely. Two, if not 
three, monastic establishments had been suppressed in 
Guildford, and it was fitting that some reparation should 
be made by the King and some of the ill-gotten revenue 
of the Church devoted to the maintenance of a school. 
The burden of maintaining the School being felt so 
severely in Guildford, the Mayor and approved men 
petitioned the King for a royal charter for Beckingham's 
school. They secured the good services of William, 
Marquis of Northampton, then Warden of the Manor 
and resident in the Royal Manor House in Guildford 
and of Sir William More of Loseley ; and the 
result of their suit was the deed dated 27th January, 
1552-3 granting to the town for ever the sum of 
jC6 13s. 4d. per annum — a rent formerly belonging to 
the chantry of Stoke d'Abernon — and £13 6s. 8d., a 
rent formerly the property of two chantries at Southwell, 
and these rents are still received by the Governors, and 
are fixed and unalterable charges. The appointment or 
masters to the School was vested by the charter in the 
Mayor and approved men of the town, and the Warden 
for the time being of the King's Manor ; and for the 
making of proper statutes for the governance of the 
School these officials were to unite with themselves the 
aid of the Bishop of Winchester. 

The building was now considered too small for the 
needs of the place, and it was felt that a far larger plot 
of ground was required, and a better and larger building. 

Accordingly, on the 28th of July, 1555, purchase was 
made by the governing body of the School — that is, by 
the Mayor and approved men — of the land upon which 



the present School-house stands ; and on September 30th 
of the same year a further purchase of three acres of land 
or thereabouts was made from JohnParvish adjoining the 
land bought in July, and at that time a garden ; and this 
now forms part of the playground and garden of the School. 

Two years later the new buildings were begun. It 
would appear that when the new buildings were decided 
upon, the old ones were placed upon the market, but it is 
not clear whether they were sold or not. Part of the 
land on which the School then stood seems to have beei 
sold and part retained ; but, as already stated, the actual 
house used as the original school belonged to the Gover- 
nors down to 1 67 1. 

The history of the erection of the School-house can b( 
gathered from a manuscript belonging to the Mayor an( 
Corporation of Guildford, called : 

'A Monument for the Schole of Guldeford, beings 
An historicall discourse wherein the pryvileges, charters, 
donations, and rights, of the same Schole are conteyned, 
the Fownder and Benefactors thereof recorded, the 
litigious titles clered, doubts resolved, and other matters 
importinge the state thereof collected by the study, 
travell, and charge, of George Austen.' 

The dedication, ' To the worshipfull his lovinge 
bretheren the Maior and approved men of Guldeforde,' is 
dated 20 December, 1607. The work, the nature of 
which is well described in the title, consists of transcripts 
of conveyances and other legal documents, interspersed 
with some personal details and recollections, often of 
great value. 

This manuscript states that : 'The maior and approved 
men of Guldeforde . . . didd in [1557] begynne at 
there own costes and charges to builde and reare the 
large Rome nowe vsed for the Schole house, with the 
great Chamber and garrett ouer the same, and the same 


healed* with Horsham stone, and therein made many 
verie faier windowes of ffree stone, well glased, the walles 
of which Scholehouse are all of Brick and stone of a very 
strong, statelie, and faire buildinge, the charges whereof 
didd amount to above flower hundred markes.'t 

This, the building which forms the south side of the 
present quadrangle, was succeeded by the erection of the 
west wing, begun in 1569 : 

'John Austen . . . sometyme maior of Guldeford, 
findinge a want of the Romes intended to be buylded for 
the Scholemaster and vssher, as is before mencioned, and 
seinge noe liklyhode . . . that the Townesmen could 
performe the same, having contributed according to his 
habilitie to the buildinge of the saide large Rome, didd 
procure ... by his travell and ernest indevour divers 
somes of money amounting in the whole to the some of 
cvj//. xiijj. iiij^., which he truly and faythfullie disbursed 
in buyldinge of the houses, sellar, Romes, lodginges, and 
Chimneys, nowe called the Scholemaster his lodginge, and 
nowe vsed and enjoyed by the Scholemaster ; which he 
began to builde in the yere [1569], the same buildinges 
beinge all of Brick and Stone of a stronge and faier build- 
inge of three storyes highe covered with Horsham stone, 
and in all poyntes answerable to the former large Rome, 
and buylded at the west end of the saide large Rome or 
Scholehouse, and extendeth it self from the Scholehouse 
northwardes to the high strete of Guldeford. But yet 
not fynished by him in such as he purposed, and as nowe 
it is, because he was prevented by death. 'J 

The east wing, and a building to connect the east and 
west wings, were next undertaken, by a fresh benefactor, 
in 1571 : 

* The verb 'to heal' is still used in Surrey in the sense of * to cover.' 
■f Austen MS., paragraph 25, p. 35. 
X Ibid., paragraph 29, p. 37. 



'William Hamonde Esquire, sometyme Maior of 
Guldeforde, of the naturall love and aff bet •»« wjch hee 
dldd bere to the saide Towne and Schofc , didd at h, 
owne eostes and charges budde the house Romes, Jod 
inges, Chymneyes, and Storyes nowe called the vri ers 
lodrinees, and nowe vsed and enjoyed by the vssher ot 
hei Scheie, the same buyldinge beinge also of Bnck 
and Stone, of a very stronge and faire buildinge of three 
storyes high, covered with Horsham stone, m all respectes 
an'werabfet'o the Lodginges of the Scholar saving 
that there is noe Sellar to this: which lodginges are 
buvlded at the Est end of the saide Scholehouse and ex- 
te" deth it self in length from the Scholehouse 
Wardes to the said high streete, which he began to 
u u„ in tW vere fi<7l"l. He alsoe afterwardes at h,s 
wn c t a c£ r L Lylded a Gallery of Brick and 
stone with a very faire windowe of freestone ad.ov».nge 
to theMgh street, and ledinge between the Lodg- 
es of the Scholemaster and vssher, a faire dore 
Rome of stone sett in the middest for a passage from the 
Street to the Scholehouse. All which he left vnfyn.shed 

at his death.'* 

These quotations show that the quadrangle had been 
set ou by'the united efforts of John Austen and Will** 
Hamond but neither of them lived to finish his .work. 
"ubTque'ntly, in 1 581, Simon Tally, vintner, < finding 
t Romes and Lodginges buylded for the vssher by M, 
Hamond to lye longe vnfyn.shed,' supplied I the woodwortc 
required ;t and, in 1 582, Robert Brodb.idge cloth er 
'seinge those Romes and Lodginges soe repaired by the 
saide'symon Tally,' glazed all the windows. J The 
west wing, however, begun, as we have seen, by John 

» Ibid., paragraph 3<S> P- ? 8 < Mr ' Ham0nd ^ '" ' 57+ ' 
f Ibid., paragraph 39, p. +5- 
I Ibid., paragraph 40, p. 4 6 - 


Austen in 1569, together with the gallery intended by 
Hamond to connect the two wings, and so to complete 
the street-front, still remained unfinished. It was reserved 
for George Austen to complete his father's wing, and to 
adapt the gallery to the purpose of a library. He modestly 
records what he did as follows : 

4 And because there is mencion made before of the 
Romes and Lodginges buylded by . . . John Austen for 
the Scholemaster his house, which was not fynyshed in his 
lyfe time, It nowe falleth out ... to make mencion in 
this place howe and by whose meanes those Romes and 
Lodginges were fynyshed. For after the death of the 
saide John Austen the same lay many yeres vnfynished — 
(the vsshers lodginges beinge afterwardes buylded as before 
is specified were fynished long before this and many yeres 
vsed for the Lodginges and Romes for the Scholemaster) 
— wherevppon knowinge what travell and paynes the 
saide John Austen my father hadd taken to buyld the same, 
and seinge howe likely it was to fall to vtter decay, I didd 
consider what course might be taken to bring the same 
to like perfection, And in thend resolved to trye what 
might be gotten amongest the gentlemen of this country 
for that purpose, And findinge Sir William More before 
named alwayes very for ward e to yelde helpe for the same, 
I didd acquaint him with my purpose and desired his 
good furtherance therein, who didd not onely contribute 
toward es the same himself but also by his meanes there 
was procured from diuers gentlemen . . . their large 
benevolence towardes this work. . . . 

' All which I truly and faythfully bestowed in the 
yere [1586] in fynishing of the saide Romes and Lodg- 
inges buylded by the saide John Austen, and alsoe in 
fynishinge the said Gallery buylded by the saide William 
Hamonde, the south side of which Gallery was taken 
downe, because the tymber worke therof being slender, 


by long contynuinge vnfynished, was like to fall, and soe 
a newe frame [was] made for that South side, which 
beinge fynished, I converted to a Library, wherein all the 
bookes . . . geven by . . . John Parkhurst late Bishopp 
of Norwich, and diuers other bookes geven sithens by 
others hereafter mencioned, are nowe remayninge, which 
lodginges, Romes, and Gallery, howe and in what 
manner they are nowe fynished, I rather leve to the vewe 
and judgment of the world then to make any larg discrip- 
tion thereof here.'* 

So much for the building and all the excellent work 
done by George Austen and all his friends. Now for 
the government of the new School. 

The original statutes of the School were settled by 
Thomas Bilson, then Bishop of Winchester. They are 
dated 21st of September, 1608, and are contained in 
twenty-five folio pages of manuscript. They are in the 
author's possession, having been sold by the trustees of the 
school for waste paper ! ! They contain many curious 
and interesting provisions. They provide that there 
shall be a resident master and usher, and that the scholars 
are not to exceed one hundred in number. No scholars 
are to be admitted until they have learned the rudiments 
of grammar called the accidence, i within book and with- 
out book,' and they are to be taught the Greek and Latin 
tongues. Every scholar, it was ordained, should pay 
eightpence per annum, quarterly, one penny each, to- 
wards the provision of brooms and rods to be used in the 
school, and fourpence at the feast of St. Michael yearly, 
wherewith should be bought clean waxen candles to keep 
light in the school-house for the school-master, usher, 
and scholars to study by in the morning and evening in 
the winter-time. The scholars in the first four forms 
were commanded in all their speech to use the Latin 

# Austen MS., paragraph 43, p. 49. 




C - 


tongue and no other, except the master should license 
and appoint them to speak in English, and every Saturday 
afternoon they were to be instructed in the principles of 
the Christian religion, that the seeds of religion might 
be sown in their hearts ; the more learned of them were, 
on these occasions, to con by heart some catechism in 
Latin, and the meaner sort some smaller task in English. 
They were to attend at the school from March 1st to 
September 1st at six in the morning, and continue until 
eleven, and in the afternoon at one, and continue till five, 
but from September till March they were to go at seven 
in the morning, and continue until eleven, and in the 
afternoon before one, and tarry until five. School was 
always to be opened by prayer, and also closed at night 
in the same way. All the boys were to be taught to 
cast accounts perfectly. 

The statutes governing the School continued in force 
till 1835, when the new statutes were signed by the 
Bishop of Winchester on the nth of December. The 
connection of the School with the bishops of the diocese 
continued from the time of its foundation down to 1889, 
when it was severed by the Charity Commissioners, who 
propounded a new scheme for the governance of the 

Under this new scheme, the repair of the buildings 
was undertaken, and a new schoolroom was formed out 
of the old dining-hall, and greatly improved by the 
removal of the dormitory above it. A considerable part of 
the old schoolroom was left intact that it might be used 
as a hall for the gathering of the scholars, or for roll-call, 
and a portion of it was adapted into a drawing-room for 
the head master, and was divided off from the remainder 
by a wall. 

Very many great and distinguished men have received 
the ground-work of their education in this school. 


Among them we find Robert Abbot, Bishop of Salis- 
bury ; George Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury ; Sir 
Maurice Abbot, Lord Mayor of London ; John Park- 
hurst, Bishop of Norwich ; Henry Cotton, Bishop of 
Norwich, and his brother William, Bishop of Exeter ; 
Robert Parkhurst, Lord Mayor of London ; Arthur 
Onslow, Speaker of the House of Commons ; Robert 
Home, Bishop of Winchester ; Richard Valpy, D.D., 
the eminent Greek scholar, grandfather of the present 
chairman to the Governors ; Douglas McKenzie, Bishop 
of Zululand ; Sir George Grey, Premier of New Zea- 
land ; Dr. Edmund Piggott, Head Master of Burford 
Grammar School, and many others. An Archbishop, six 
Bishops, a Speaker, two Lord Mayors, a Greek scholar 
of no mean reputation, a Head Master, and a Colonial 
Premier of considerable distinction, form a list of old boys 
of which any Grammar School may well be proud. 

The gallery to which George Austen refers in his 
interesting manuscript is the long room over the porch, 
facing into the High Street, and measuring nearly thirty- 
two feet long and about twelve feet six inches broad. 
On the north side it is lighted by the lofty window 
of six lights divided by a transome built by Hamond 
in 1 57 1 ; on the south side, which is of wood, there 
were originally two long low windows, each of four 
lights. These still exist, but have been partially blocked 
up. The room is at present entered from the west wing 
only, but, as Dr. Willis Clark pointed out in an important 
article on the School Library, the words used in the 
account of its construction imply that it could be entered 
at each end, and in fact, until the recent repairs took 
place, a door led into it from the east wing. This was 
the room intended for the Parkhurst Library, an im- 
portant gift of books made by John Parkhurst, Bishop 
of Norwich (i 560-1 575), to his native town, by his 

REV. H. G. MERRIMAN, D.D., 1823-1887. 



will dated 1st February, 1573. The extract from the 
will relating to the town of Guildford is as follows : 

...Item, I gyve to the Towne of Guilforde 
where I was borne a greate Bowie of Siluer and 

Item I gyve to the Lybrarie of the same Town 
ioyning to the Schole the most parte of all my 
Latten bookes whereof shalbe made a Catalogue as 
shortelie as I maye God sending me lief. All my 
Englisshe books I bequeath to my two Bretherne 
Christofer Parkhurst and Nicholas Parkhurst... 

Austen records the bequest, and the serious difficul- 
ties which beset the acquisition of it in the following 
words : 

John Parkhurst late Bishopp of Norwich... 
beringe a most naturall love and affection to this 
towne, where he was borne, and verie carefull for 
the saide Schole in his life tyme, geving Twenty 
poundes towardes the buyldinge of the said Schole,. . . 
didd also by his last will and Testament left in 
wryting geve to the Maior and approved men of 
Guldeford his best bason and ewer of silver [etc., 
etc.]... and besides gave all his bookes of divinitic 
other then his English bookes to the saide Schole 
to remayne in the Library, to be made for the saffe 
keepinge of them in that Schole. 

But his will toke not that effect which he ment, 
by reason that those which he appoynted to be execu- 
tors of his saide last will didd after his death use all 
the Cullorable shiftes and practises they could to 
defraud his good meanynge, whereby the saide 
Maior and his bretheren were dryven to send 
sondry tymes to there great charges to Norwich to 
the executors of the saide Bishopp, to require the 


performance of the saide will towardes this towne 
and Schole ; but all wolde not prevayle, and there- 
fore were inforced to complayne to the Lord 
Treasorer, by English bill in the Exchequor, 
wherevppon the executors were sent for by proces 
and made there apparance and answer, and vppon 
the hearing of the matter the same was referred to 
the orderinge of Sir Walter Mildmaye knight then 
Chauncelor of the saide Exchequor, whoe ordered 
that the saide executors shold deliuer the saide Bason 
and Ewer of Silver and all the bookes given by the 
saide Bishopp and a some of money. The certenty 
I remember not, But I am assured the money was 
not soe much by Thirtie poundes as the Costes and 
Charges in lawe and in travaile there aboutes hadd 
cost them. And yett when all sholde be deliuered 
according to the saide order, then didd Doctor 
Freek then Bishopp of Norwich deteyne the saide 
bookes (finding them in his house) for delapidacions, 
vntill letters were procured from some of her 
Maiestyes privie Counsell, requiring him to deliuer 
them. And yett didd he make Choice of very 
many of the best bookes, and kept them still to 
his owne vse, and deliuered the rest, which were 
brought to this Schole and placed in the Library 
purposely fynished for the same where they still 
remayne. A true catalogue of all which bookes is 
here vnder written.* 
The will says distinctly that the books were given to 
the library of the town adjoining to the School, and Dr. 
Willis Clark has pointed out that this implied the library 
was a public one, and not merely for the benefit of the 
School in which the donor had been educated. This 
view derives confirmation from the fact that a staircase 

* Austen MS., paragraph 41, p. 46. 


used to lead down from the east end of the gallery to the 
court, so that a person wishing to enter the gallery was 
not obliged to pass through the lodgings of either the 
school-master or the usher. The staircase, however, was 
removed about thirty years ago. 

It is the existence of this Parkhurst Library that con- 
stitutes one of the two unique features attached to the 
Guildford Grammar School. The books are now safely 
lodged in a delightful room specially arranged for them, 
but they have passed through many vicissitudes. As we 
have just seen, it was comparatively few of the books 
actually left by the Bishop that came to the School, but 
this collection was supplemented by various other bene- 
factions of books which continued in slow succession 
from 1578 down to 1745. A list is given in Manning 
and Bray's ' History of Surrey ' of the various persons 
who gave books to the library. 

George Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury, is amongst 
the number, and the rectors of the various parishes round 
about Guildford were other benefactors. 

Of the 484 volumes in the collection, only a very 
few are of striking rarity or value. There was at 
one time in the library a work printed by Caxton entitled 
< The History of Troy,' but it has disappeared ; and the 
oldest book now remaining is one entitled 'Nova Legenda 
Angliae,' printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 1500. 

The great feature, however, of the library, is that it 
possesses a considerable number of chained books — some 
89 in all. The other chained libraries in England are 
those in Hereford Cathedral, All Saints', Hereford, 
Grantham Church, Wimborne Minster, Bolton Grammar 
School, and Turton Church ; and of the seven places 
Guildford ranks fifth as regards the number of chained 
works it contains. 

The collection is also the only one in England com- 


posed of books presented by old boys to the school where 
they had been educated. It is clear that the purpose of the 
library was originally for the use of the boys ; and one 
donor, John Birchall, a clothier of Guildford, who was 
also Mayor of the town when he gave a Greek lexicon 
to the library, expressly stated that it was for the use of 
such scholars in the School as learned the Greek 

Nothing is known of the book-cases which Austen 
made in 1586, but we are told that in 1648 new oak 
book-cases were made, and Mr. Arthur Onslow gave 
eight oaks for that purpose, his gift being commemorated 
by an inscription which appeared in the buildings, and 
was dated April 6th, 1650. What became of these 
book-cases no one can tell, but for many years the books 
were hopelessly neglected. They were stacked away in 
various cupboards and rooms, and at one time bestowed 
under the floor of the principal schoolroom, in order to be 
well out of the way. The senior scholars of the School 
were allowed to inspect them as curiosities and often to 
ill-treat them ; and successive masters, finding that the 
books were of no special practical value, paid little atten- 
tion to them and gave little heed to their preservation. 
The present body of Governors took up the matter a few 
years ago, and Mr. Herbert Powell carefully catalogued 
the entire library, which numbers 484 volumes, and 
printed a catalogue of the books. At that time the 
binding of many of the volumes was carefully repaired 
and strengthened, and some treasures in the way of frag- 
ments of old manuscripts, and two perfect copies of 
Henry VIII. 's second proclamation ordering a Bible to 
be fixed in every church in the kingdom, were rescued 
from the binding of some of the sixteenth century 
volumes and framed and hung up in the library. 

Inasmuch as not a sinele chained book is now to be seen 


in any of our universities, and there are so few libraries of 
such interesting literature remaining in the kingdom, it is 
of the greatest possible interest that in Guildford we 
should possess so venerable a relic of past times. 

It appeared at one time as though the new body of 
Governors were as likely to be indifferent to the claims 
of this library as their predecessors had been, and 
strong efforts were made in the local press by the present 
writer and by Dr. J. Willis Clark, the Registrary of the 
University of Cambridge, to stir up some enthusiasm 
respecting the books. Such enthusiasm was at length 
kindled, and all Guildfordians owe a debt of gratitude to 
Mr. Powell for the work he has carried out. 

The other claim to notoriety that Guildford Grammar 
School possesses, consists in the fact that the earliest men- 
tion of cricket occurs in connection with the evidence of 
certain scholars from the Free School of Guildford in the 
fortieth year of Elizabeth. There was a long-continued 
law suit in the town with regard to the withholding of 
a certain garden plot in the parish of Holy Trinity, near 
to the north town ditch, which was claimed as part of the 
waste land of the town, and which had been withheld 
for forty years from the use of the inhabitants. In 
1 598 'John Derrick, gentleman, one of the Queen's 
majestie's coroners ' for Surrey, aged fifty-nine, gave evi- 
dence that he had known the land for fifty years or more. 
He stated that it lay waste, and was used and occupied 
by the inhabitants of Guildford to saw timber in and for 
saw-pits, and for making frames of timber for the said 
inhabitants. He also declared that when he was a 
scholar in the Free School of Guildford he and several of 
his fellows i did runne and play there at crickett and 
other plaies/ and also that the same was used for 
the baiting of bears in the said town until it was 



His evidence, which is very carefully recorded in the i|> 
town books, forms the earliest mention of the game of 
cricket that Dr. Murray was able to trace for the pur- 
poses of his dictionary. 

Chapter VI 


O EFERENCE has already been made to the division 
-"■of the town into three parts, and to the existence of 
a church in each of the three divisions. In the town 
books the three churches are frequently styled i Upper, 
Middle, and Lower Church,' and these titles, which had 
a special force in Puritan times, when there was a strong 
objection to any allusion to religious dedications, still 
hold good in the present day, and many Guildford people 
invariably speak of the three churches by these ordinary 

There is no actual record of the foundation of either 
of the three churches, although Dugdale states that the 
advowson of Holy Trinity belonged to the Priory of 
Merton in 1300. The list of rectors of this church, 
which has always been the principal one in the town, 
commences in 1304, but the principal source of informa- 
tion respecting the history of the church is from a tran- 
scription made in the time of Charles II. by one Richard 
Symmes, the Town Clerk, who took his information 
from some early churchwardens' books, which have since 
been lost. 

This manuscript, part of which has been printed by 
Mr. Philip Palmer in his pamphlet on the church,* 
gives a good many points of interest respecting the 
sixteenth century building and its arrangements. The 
building originally had attached to it an important 
chantry, founded by Henry Norbrige, who was Major 

* * Some Records of the Churches and Parish of Holy Trinity, Guildford,' 
by P. Palmer, 1888. 



in 1483, and was concerned in procuring the charter 
granted by Henry VII. to the men of Guildford. He 
appears to have been a person connected with Court 
circles, for in the foundation of his chantry the names 
of Elizabeth the Queen Consort j Margaret Countess of 
Richmond, the King's mother ; Sir Thomas Bourchier, 
and Sir Reginald Bray, are associated with him in the 
Writ of Privy Seal which licensed the endowment. It 
is dated February 6th, i486, and it endows a chantry 
priest to say prayers in Trinity Church for ever in the 
chauntrey of Norbrige and Kingeston. 

About half a century after the foundation of this 
chantry, it was suppressed by Act of Parliament in com- 
mon with other religious institutions, and the property 
intended for its support passed to the Crown. Some of 
this property finally came to the Corporation of the 
town, but later on was exchanged by the Corporation 
for certain fee farm rents. The woods still known as 
the Chantry Woods, forming part of the Godwin-Austen 
estate on the Shalford Road, were an important part of 
this benefaction. 

Another chantry belonging to the same church was 
founded by one of the Westons of Sutton Place, and 
the chapel, in which were buried nearly all the pro- 
prietors of the estate, still exists. This chantry was 
suppressed in the beginning of the reign of Edward VI., 
when the chaplain was granted a pension of five pounds 
a year for his life. The last of the Westons buried 
within the chapel died in 1782, bequeathing the estates 
to her near relative John Webb, who afterwards took 
the name of Weston, and from him they descended to 
their present owner, Mr. Philip Witham, through Cap- 
tain Salvin recently deceased. 

The estate is remarkable and almost unique among 
those in England, inasmuch as it has never passed out 



of Catholic hands, and the Mass has been celebrated 
continuously in the Manor House from the earliest 
times down to 1876, when it was discontinued in the 
house on the erection of a church close by. 

The Weston Chapel, attached to Holy Trinity Church, 
is still entirely the private property of the owner of the 
Manor of Sutton, and does not belong to the church, 
although it is now used as a vestry. On each occasion 
on which Holy Trinity Church has been enlarged, the 
claim of the Lord of the Manor of Sutton Place has 
been set forward, and his right to the separate owner- 
ship of this chapel has been acknowledged. 

The old church of Holy Trinitv/a view of which 
can be seen in Harris's South-westView of Guildford, 
1738, had a ground plan very much resembling that of 
St. Mary's. Fragments of the buildings still exist, and 
are preserved in the porch of the present church, and the 
monuments in this porch were removed when the old 
church was destroyed. From time to time, during the 
last fifty years of its existence, it was repaired, but the 
repairs were not of a sufficiently structural character, and 
in 1740 it was reported that the church was unsafe. 

The last service was held on April 19th of that 
year, and on the following Wednesday the steeple fell 
bodily through the roof of the nave. It is said that the 
verger of the church, on being told that the steeple had 
fallen, rephed that it was impossible that this could have 
happened, inasmuch as he had the key in his pocket. 
I his particular key, an unusually large one, is still pre- 
served in the Guildford Institute. The catastrophe was 
witnessed by a great many people, as it was Guildford 
t air Day and the High Street was crowded. Fortu- 
nately, however, no one was injured. 

The church remained in ruins for nearly two years 
and then steps for the demolition of the walls and chan- 



eel were taken, and it was decided that the church should 
be rebuilt. It was not, however, till 1750, ten years 
after the accident, that the foundation stone of the new 
building was laid by the Mayor. The work went on 
for a year, and was then stopped for want of funds 
and in 1755 it was decided to petition for an Act of 
Parliament to sell some Church property on the south 
side of the churchyard (on the site now covered by 
a draper's shop), and also to sell certain household goods 
belonging to the church. 

The Rector opposed this course very strenuously, and 
refused to be present at the vestry meeting, but the 
Mayor took the chair, the Act of Parliament was 
obtained, and the property was sold. The Rector d>ed 
in the same year, and was buried in the partly rebuil 
church, and, twenty-three years after the destruction of 
the old building, the new church was first used for 

Divine service. . • , .. ,. 

In i860 some alteration was made in the bui ding, 
the side galleries were removed, the windows altered 
from two rows to one, the pews lowered and rearranged, 
and the organ removed from the gallery and placed at 
the east end. After these alterations Bishop W.lberforce 
attended and re-opened the church. The new chancel 
was erected and the church was enlarged in 188b. 
Attention may be directed to the handsome iron-work 
outside the church, which dates from 1712, and in which 
are contained the initials of the churchwardens of the 
time, in wrought iron foliage work. 

Archbishop Abbot's tomb is the most important 
monument within the church, and it was erected in 
l6« by his brother, Sir Maurice Abbot, Lord Mayor 
of London. It does not now stand over the vault 
containing the remains of the prelate, but was removed 
further eastward when the new chancel was erected. 




~ <: 




-ii 1 







The vault is underneath the pews where the brethren 
and sisters of the Hospital sit, and by accident was opened 
while the repairs were in progress in 1888. The Arch- 
bishop's remains were seen upon the floor of the vault 
in a coffin with the feet to the east; the form of the 
body clearly revealed, and the beard still apparently 
intact. About half-a-dozen people in the town were 
able, during the few minutes that the brick-work fell 
away, to look into the vault, and see this remarkable and 
not very common sight ; the brick-work was then care- 
fully replaced, and the vault, which had probably not 
been disturbed since 1633, w *s sealed up. 

On the occasion of Abbot's funeral, which took place in 
Trinity Church at the particular request of the Arch- 
bishop, there was a very imposing ceremonial, and Laud 
then Archbishop-Elect, was principal mourner, the High 
Street was hung in black, and almost all the townspeople 
joined in the procession, which was headed by the Officers 
of Arms from Heralds' College. 

The monument represents the Archbishop at full 
length, in his archiepiscopal robes, under a canopy of six 
bkick marble pillars raised on pedestals of books piled up. 
Near by, on the south wall, is the brass commemorating 
the father and mother of the Archbishop, Maurice and 
Alice Abbot, who died in 1606. 

Of their six sons, four acquired eminence ; George 
the Archbishop, Robert, Bishop of Salisbury, Maurice' 
Lord Mayor of London, and Anthony, Mayor of Guild- 
ford, while the eldest son, Richard, became the first 
Master of the Hospital founded by his brother in 1622, 
and John, the sixth son, was an important benefactor to 
the poor of the town by his will of 1654. 

There is a fine memorial brass to Henry Norbri^e and 
his wife (who founded the chantry already mentioned) 
upon the south wall of the church, dated 15 12, and in 


the north-east corner of the nave is the monument to 
Arthur Onslow, Speaker of the House of Commons, 
erected to commemorate his connection with the borough 
of Guildford, and his generous benefactions to the church. 
His remains are not buried beneath the monument, but 

lie at Merrow. 

On the north side of the tower entrance is the monu- 
ment to Sir Robert and Lady Parkhurst, Sir Robert 
having been member for Guildford in the Long Parlia- 
ment, and Lord Mayor of London in the eleventh year 
of Charles I. The monument opposite does not bear 
any name or date, but is believed to commemorate Lady 
Weston of Sutton Place, who was buried in the Weston 
Chapel in 1625. It is not at all clear when this monu- 
ment was removed from the Weston Chapel. 

In the rooms in the tower there existed for some 
time a town Blue-coat School. This school was 
originally established by Thomas Baker, a clothier, in 
1578 ; he it was who erected the market-house for rye, 
and oats, known as Baker's market-house, occupying an 
open space in front of Holy Trinity Church. It was a 
building constructed solely of wood, and in the upper part 
of it the school was carried on. In 1758 it was removed, 
and a neat octagonal structure of brick and stone took its 


At that time the School was temporarily suspended, 
but it was revived in 1762, and the endowment added 
to, by private subscription, in order that twenty boys 
should be clothed and educated by means of that charity. 
Later on, the octagonal building, which was found to be 
very much in the" way, was removed, and about forty 
years ago the Blue-coat School ceased to exist, and the 
endowment was added to the funds given by Archbishop 
Abbot for the encouragement of the cloth industry 
and a little later on these two funds were used to create 


Archbishop Abbot's School. The bell and other relics 
connected with the old school are still in existence. 

It is probable that the oldest church in the town was 
on the site now occupied by St. Nicholas' Church. 
There is believed to have been a building upon that 
site with a round tower of Anglo-Saxon work, and it 
was probably there that the festival of St. Blaise was 

There is a reference to this festival in an anonymous 
chronicle of about 1400, in the British Museum, which 
speaks of High Mass conducted by the Dominican Friars 
on the festival of St. Blaise (February 3rd), and of a Guild 
Communion on the day following ' at the Mass at the 
church nigh unto the river, where the fulling took place.' 
It seems probable that this reference is to St. Nicholas. 

The third day of February, the Feast of St. Blaise, 
was to the people of both Guildford and Godalming the 
great festival of the year. In 1222 the Council or 
Parliament of Oxford expressly prohibited all servile 
work on that day, and wherever the wool industry 
flourished it was specially observed. 

Upon February 3rd there were both here and at 
Godalming great processions. Solemn High Mass at St. 
Mary's Church, conducted by the Dominican Friars, 
fittingly opened the day ; alms were given to the poor ; 
bonfires blazed upon the hills, and there was an entire 
cessation of labour throughout the day. In the evening 
the Gild-Merchant met for the election of the officers 
for the year, for Common Hall and a trade gathering, 
and for a feast thereafter ; and then early upon the next 
day the new officers attended at Mass, and made their 
corporate gild communion and offering. Down to 
Stuart times the festival continued its hold on the 


people, even when the Gild-Merchant had merged into 
another body governing the town, and the wool industry 
showed signs of steady and rapid decadence. 

In Norfolk, St. Blaise is similarly honoured and is 
represented on Norwich tokens ; and in Bradford, down 
to our own day, the procession is septennially observed, 
although now it is not regarded as a religious festival, 
nor does it include the old religious observances. That 
side of the festival, however, still remains both in Pro- 
vence and Ragusa, where February 3rd is still religiously 
kept by the woolworkers ; while to the present day the 
Dutch Gild of Clothworkers meet on the Festival of St. 
Blaise, and upon that day corporately attend church with 
a mediaeval style of procession, and afterwards elect 
their burgomaster and dine in common. St. Blaise has 
but three churches dedicated to his honour in England, 
but his effigy is often seen in stained glass, where he is 
generally represented seated in the midst of a variety of 
animals. A picture of him, by Monsignori, of Verona, 
is to be found engraved in Rossini's c History of Paint- 
ing,' and at Genoa a very fine painting of him is to be 
seen, by Carlo Maratta. In Westminster Abbey there 
was an important chapel dedicated to him and in 
the churches of the Orthodox Communion he is held in 
great veneration, and his icons are in great repute. The 
most elaborate rock-hewn monastery in the world (save, 
perhaps, in Egypt) is to be found in Apulia, near Brin- 
disi, and is not only dedicated to St. Blaise, but contains 
some wonderful Byzantine coloured frescoes of scenes 
in his life, executed in 1 1 97. 

Even now St. Blaise has not been lost sight of in 
Surrey and a curious example of the use of his name 
came under our attention a short time ago. 

This incident occurred not far from Guildford, in a 
village remote from the progress of modern civilization. 


A child at a mid-day meal, whilst eating some fish, 
accidentally swallowed a bone, which stuck fast in the 
gullet. Ordinary simple remedies were applied, but the 
obstacle could not be moved, and suffocation seemed im- 
minent. A wise woman of the village, however, was 
hurriedly sent for, and an old incantation used. Laying her 
hand on the child's throat, St. Blaise was called upon for aid, 
and the bone ordered to move either i up or down in the 
name of Blaise ' (or, as the woman pronounced it, Blazes), 
4 a man of God.' 

We must decline to enter into controversial ques- 
tions as to the value of the incantation, but in honesty 
are bound to record that the bone became looser, and with 
a gulp was swallowed. The power of that village wise 
woman is now fully recognised in the place, and an ancient 
tradition has been revived. 

If we look into the pages of a Greek medica 1 writer of 
the sixth century, Aetius, we find there almost word for 
word this formula recommended and used, and we think 
it will be granted that it is a most interesting example of 
the survival of an old tradition to find, thirteen hundred 
years afterwards, the same formula in use in a Surrey vil- 
lage. Aetius gives the words thus : ' O bone, if thou 
art a bone, or whatsoever else thou art, come forth ! 
Blaise the Martyr, the servant of Christ, says to thee : 
" Either go downwards or come upwards." 

St. Blaise has been for centuries a very popular saint 
in England. He is regarded universally as the patron of 
woolcombers, of all who suffer from diseases of the 
throat, and of wild animals. He was a Greek Bishop 
over the Christian Church at Sebaste (modern Sivas), in 
Armenia a.d. 289. Under the persecution of Diocletian 
he fled and took refuge in a cave in Mount Argaeus, the 
haunt of bears and other fierce beasts. The creatures (so 
runs the story), completely subdued by the good old man, 


did him no harm ; but, coming morning by morning for 
his blessing, knelt around him while at his devotions. 

The Governor of Sebaste, Agricolaus, was often send- 
ing his hunters into the mountains to collect wild beasts 
for the persecution of the Christians in the amphi- 
theatre, and upon one occasion his men were witnesses of 
the startling sight. 

St. Blaise was actually preaching to his wild friends 
and reproving them for rapacity and gluttony. He was 
seized by the hunters to be carried to the Governor, but 
on the way passed a poor woman whose child was choking 
from having partially swallowed a bone. The holy 
Bishop was appealed to, and, moved with compassion, 
placed his hand on the child's throat, and he was healed 
and restored to his mother. A little further on, we are 
told, he ordered a wolf immediately to restore to a poor 
woman her pig, which the creature was carrying off, and 
upon which her entire household depended. 

The Governor, upon seeing the Bishop, ordered him to 
be scourged and starved, but the woman whose pig he had 
restored killed the animal and fed the Bishop in his dun- 
geon, receiving the blessing of the old man and consequent 
prosperity. As St. Blaise did not starve, the cruel 
Governor ordered his flesh to be tortured with iron combs, 
such as were then used in that district for carding wool ; 
and, failing to subdue his courage or controvert his stead- 
fastness, had him beheaded. The legend gives us the 
clues to the triple patronage possessed by the saint ; and, 
inasmuch as the wool industry was the staple trade of 
England, the explanation of St. Blaise's popularity is easy. 

The round tower of St. Nicholas' Church disappeared 
at the beginning of the eighteenth century, and in 1801 
John Russell says that the church had undergone very 
many alterations, and had had a new tower erected about 
a hundred years before. 



2 a 



There were many occasions upon which the old church 
was useless for Divine service, as, owing to the low situa- 
tion in which it stood, it was sometimes flooded with 
water for many weeks at a time, and in 1796 it was 
urgently necessary that some repairs should be carried 
out. Russell tells us that in that year the old pillars and 
arches were removed, the floor was raised three feet, and 
the church was re-pewed and re-opened for service in 
July, 1800. 

For about forty years these repairs were considered 
sufficient, but the constant washing of the river round 
the foundations brought on serious structural defects, and, 
as the land upon which the church stood was originally 
a morass, there was danger that the whole building would 
give way and some serious accident be the result. In 
1837 the greater part of the church was pulled down and 
a new church erected, but the old tower, which had been 
built in the latter part of the seventeenth century, was not 
taken down, but strengthened, and by the addition of 
new buttresses and cornices made to harmonise with the 
so-called Gothic building then erected. The result was 
a church which was considered very satisfactory at the 
time, but contrasted very unfavourably with the simple 
stately building that had preceded it. ' 

The new church was not much more secure than the 
one just destroyed. It was dark, inconvenient, and too 
small for the increasing size of the parish, and it was 
not at all fitted for the class of service desired by the 
parishioners. When Dr. Monsell was presented to the 
living in 1870, he set the building of a new church 
m hand forthwith, and designs were prepared for the 
work. The destruction of the Gothic church was carried 
out in his time, and the present building, on a somewhat 
higher site, nearer the High Street and further from the 
river, was commenced by him and completed by his 


1 22r 

successors. It is, therefore, probably the fourth church 

in that parish. , . 

On each occasion the Loseley Chapel was preserved and 
incorporated in the new building, and it is there 
that the most important monuments connected with bt. 
Nicholas' remain. The ancient family of Brocas or 
Beaurepaire had an intimate connection with the parish 
of St. Nicholas, and two members of the family, Arno d 
and Bernard, were rectors. The monument to Arnold 
Brocas, 1395, still remains in the Loseley Chapel, but 
the brass plate to Bernard Brocas, 1368, has disappeared. 
Beside this Brocas monument, the others in the Loseley 
Chapel are to various members of the More family, who 
own Loseley Park, and who have always retained the right 
of sepulture in this place. There is a monument to 
Sir Christopher More, i 5 49 i °» e to Lady More, 159° j 
another to Sir William More and his wife, 1600 ; and 
others to later members of the family. 

An interesting; brass is in the porch commemorating 
Caleb Loveioy, who left some property to his native parish 
for the benefit of the poor, now administered by the 
Loveioy Trustees, and forming the endowment to an 
almshouse close at hand. He was born in the parish and 
educated at the Grammar School, but before the age of 
fifteen was removed to London, where he became a 
successful tailor and free of the Merchant Taylors 

'°HcTmentioned in the Exchequer Depositions as having 
been a waggoner to Oliver Cromwell, and it would 
appear that he was a contractor for the supply of waggons 
to Cromwell's army and a staunch Puritan, very much 
attached to the principles of the Commonwealth. 1 he 
Depositions of the third and fourth year of James 11. 
speak of Loveioy ejecting the King's tenants as soon as 
he purchased the land he left to his Guildford trustees. 

From a water colour drawing by Hassell, 


There is a rather curious history connected with the 
plot of land he bequeathed. 

It was at one time occupied by the town house for 
the Priors of Lewes, but, previous to that time, the 
building had been the manor house of the De Warrennes, 
Earls of Surrey, who were Lords of Southwark, and part 
of it had been built by William, the first Earl, who 
founded the Priory of Lewes. After the dissolution, 
part of the site was occupied by the St. Olave's Gram- 
mar School of Queen Elizabeth, and part became the 
Walnut-tree Inn. 

In 1532, the Earl of Essex held the hostelry from the 
Crown, but, upon his fall, it was again divided, and the 
inn fell into the hands of one Adam Beeston of St. 
Olave's, a brewer. Cuthbert Beeston, His son, citizen 
and girdler of London, died seised of the inn, together 
with its garden and fifteen houses in the lane, held of the 
Queen in chief, and worth yearly £5 6s. 8d. 

The next owner of it was Caleb Lovejoy, and he 
bequeathed it in 1676 to his trustees in Guildford. It 
was sold under the Act for re-building London Bridge, 
and the proceeds were used for the building of the alms- 
houses, but upon part of the land in 1757 was built the 
Carter Lane Chapel. When that was demolished for 
the new approaches to London Bridge, the congregation 
met in New Park Street Chapel, afterwards at the Surrey 
Gardens, and latterly at the Metropolitan Tabernacle, 
under the pastorship of the Rev. C. H. Spurgeon. 

In imagination we may therefore picture, as Dr. 
Rendle points out, the Conqueror visiting his step- 
daughter at the house of her husband, the Earl de 
Warrenne ; the town house of the Priors of Lewes, the 
foundation of the De Warrennes ; the Grammar School 
of Queen Elizabeth, and the hostelry of the Elizabethan 
inn, the Walnut-tree ; and we may add to this series of 


recollections, the residence of Oliver Cromwell's wag- 
goner, the bequest to the trustees in Guildford, and the 
Baptist Chapel with its link in its turn with the Metro- 
politan Tabernacle, and so gain a long chain of circum- 
stances connected with this plot of land. 

Perhaps the only thing which now recalls the old 
name of the place is the scarce token struck by Ephraim 
Bull in Walnut-tree Lane in 1667, and it was the 
investigation as to the place mentioned on this token 
that led to the discovery of this series of links. 

Of the early history of St. Mary's Church there is 
very little documentary information, and we have to 
learn its history, as Mr. Ware has stated in his recent 
monograph, by studying its masonry. He considers that 
the tower is the oldest portion of the church, and that it 
is of Saxon workmanship, that is to say, the work appar- 
ently of Englishmen, and not of the French masons who 
came over with William the Conqueror. In order to 
appreciate its original appearance, he imagines it as 
standing alone, a fortified building, erected with a view 
to defence, and he points out that it was originally 
lighted by two windows in the north and south walls, 
at some height above the ground level, and that these 
windows have a double splay, characteristic of Saxon 
work. He suggests that, if ever there was a church 
attached to this tower, it was of wood or wattle, but 
nothing of it now remains. 

Next in importance to the tower is the chancel, which 
is of pure Norman work, probably built, he considers, 
before the end of the eleventh century, and its original 
windows are still visible in the walls north and south of 
the Communion rails, but were walled up, in all proba- 
bility, when the two side chapels were built. This 



chancel originally extended some twelve feet further 
east than it does at present, and there was a very 
narrow lane between the end of the church and the 
town gaol. 

During the Regency preceding the reign of George IV 
this lane was often used by the Prince Regent on his 
way to the Pavilion at Brighton, and it was extremely 
difficult for his carriage to pass through it. He pro- 
tested very much against the difficulty, and promised the 
town a considerable sum of money if the road could be 
widened. Instead of removing a portion of the town 
prison, which could quite easily have been diminished 
m size, the authorities preferred to shorten the church 
and cut off about twelve feet from its length and replaced 
the chancel window. 

The whole proportion of the building was in this way 
injured in the creation of the present Quarry Street, and 
as the sum of money promised by the Prince Recent for 
the alteration was never paid to the town, the injury 
done to the building did not even have the justification 
it might otherwise have received, but could only be 
characterised as a piece of Philistinism of the worst 
possible order. 

The two chapels of St. John and St. Mary were 
according to Mr. Ware, erected early in the twelfth 
century. They were probably improved, he says, and 
perhaps almost rebuilt, a hundred years later, but the 
three windows of the north chapel are of later style, and 
appear to belong to the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fif- 
teenth centuries respectively. The south chapel, dedi- 
cated to St. Mary, may possibly be a few years later than 
the north one. 

The two passages which connect the chapels with 
the chancel, and are cut through the Norman wall 
are a striking feature of the church. They have been 


nicy w<~ . , i ui e to pass from the nign 

that a procession might be ame iu f 
SW throu-h the chapels and aisles. The rood screen a 
that tim filled up the centre aisle, and against it stood 

evidently built in the time of Henry 11. 

were reLilt during the «^of Henry ■ I -, - «* «£ 

iXttce^turtsoon X S tie /ave with ta' narrow 

^^not^yta work of this description to go 
through all the important architectural features of this 
£3£S church/especially as stents ^ferred 
to Mr. Ware's learned treatise.* It hou d , , 

mentioned, that there were six altars .in 

■ I1„ three in the monastic church— the cnancei 
originally, hree in the d (o in the rood 

and two side chapels the o h .^ 

roSriitT^ihtthrtln^he south aisle there were 
however, quit F of wq lnas> but 

tW ° ohabletha one f them belongs to the original 
,t ,s probable tha one ^ was 

aisle , and ^ °the - e ^ chantrf 

bea n n n e g d ;he T n:rof a, ]esus and the other The Body of 

* Three Surrey Churches. Crown 4 to., 1900. 

From a water colour drawing by ILusc-//. 


Christ, and in 1492 there is a bequest recorded of 3s. 4d. 
left to each chantry by Henry Freke, and twelve pence 
for the High Altar. 

The Masses for the soul of the heir to the throne, 
mentioned in the chapter on the Dominican Friary, were 
to be said at the Mary Altar, and in this same place 
there were many Masses for the soul of Edward the 
Black Prince, in accordance with a special bequest made 
for that purpose by his own will. In the ninth year of 
Henry III., Henry . . . , the Vicar of St. Mary's Church 
gave 40s. to have a Fair held near the church for three days. 

The two parishes of St. Mary and Holy Trinity 
were united in 1698-9, 10 and 11 William III., under 
the name of The Holy and Undivided Trinity and the 
Blessed Virgin St. Mary. The union was made by Act 
of Parliament, inasmuch as the two parishes were close 
together, the patronage in the same hands, and the 
income exceedingly small, and on this occasion Morley, 
Bishop of Winchester, gave twenty pounds per annum 
for three years, and Sir Richard Onslow two hundred 
pounds, to further the scheme. The parishes are united 
for ecclesiastical purposes only, but as to other matters, 
such as the repairs to the fabric, they remain distinct. 

It has been suggested by the late Mr. J. H. Parker, the 
celebrated authority on architecture, that on the exterior 
of the west front of St. Mary's there was originally a 
porch, and that it possibly had a chamber over it. There 
is still to be seen a niche for the imaee of a saint near the 


south end of the west wall, and there is certainly some 
evidence for the theory which Mr. Parker enunciates. If 
that were so, it was in all probability used for sanctuary ; 
and, as we know from the Rolls of the Court of Ex- 
chequer in the third year of Edward III. that two criminals 
took sanctuary at St. Mary's, it seems probable that this 
occurrence took place in the porch. 


The right of sanctuary, originally laid down by the 
early Saxon kings, continued right on to the Middle 
Ages ; and, as a rule, persons whose liberty was in danger, 
and who desired this sanctuary, took refuge in the Galilee 
or porch of the nearest important church. One of the 
most important sanctuary porches still remaining is the 
one in connection with Durham Cathedral. 

Another special feature of the interior of this church is 
to be found in the wall-paintings which adorn the chapel 
of St. John. There is no very distinct evidence as to 
which St. John this chapel is dedicated to, but it is 
probable that, as three of these wall-paintings refer 
distinctly to the Evangelist, its dedication is to St. John 
the Divine. In the will of John Jeffson, dated 1547, 
the testator desires to be buried in the chapel of St. John 
in the church of St. Mary. From this piece of informa- 
tion one historian of the county assigns the dedication to 
St. John the Baptist ; but, as a rule, in the wills of the 
Middle Ages, the reference to St. John, when the word 
stands alone, is to St. John the Divine rather than to St. 
John the Baptist. 

Mr. J. G. Waller gave very careful attention to these 
paintings, and in 1891 wrote an important article upon 
them, from which any information as to their subjects is 
necessarily taken. The centre of the composition on the 
upper part of the vaulting has the figure of our Lord 
seated within an aureole, holding up the right hand in the 
act of benediction, and having in the other hand a book 
or orb. This is usually known as ' The Majesty.' 
There are two small figures of angels on each side of 
another face of the vault to represent the Heavenly 

The first subject, commencing from the right side of 
' The Majesty,' clearly represents St. John in the vat of 
boiling oil before the Latin Gate at Rome. Part of the 


medallion at the extreme end of the vault on the north 
side, or the right of < The Majesty,' represents another 
scene in the legendary history of St. John — the miracle of 
the raising of Drusiana from the dead. The other part 
of the medallion refers to two more stories respecting the 
same Apostle, in which he is represented as collecting 
together the fragments of certain gems which had been 
destroyed and making them whole again, and also his 
miracle of converting certain rods into gold. Between 
these two medallions is yet another reference to the same 
legendary history, according to which the Apostle, having 
fortified himself by the sign of the Cross, drank up some 
poison, and also raised to life two men who had previously 
died from the effect of the same poison. 

On the other half of the vaulting, opposite to the 
medallion exhibiting St. John in the vat of oil, is part of 
the story of St. John the Baptist, the Forerunner being 
brought before the seated figure of Herod, and the decapi- 
tation. On the reverse face to this is the most obscure 
of these medallions, and Mr. Waller states that it refers 
to the story of the Jew of Berytus who maltreated the 
representation of Christ. The story is related by St. 
Athanasius, and it ends with a narrative of the baptism of 
the Jew and his companions, who had proved to them, by 
a miracle, the Divinity of our Lord. 

The last subject, which is larger than the others, 
represents the casting out of devils by the power of The 

On the spandrils above the arch are two scenes — the 
* Weighing of Souls ' and ( The Punishment.' 

It is suggested that these paintings were executed by 
William of Florence, an artist who is referred to in a 
document of 1259 Clie< ^ by Horace Walpole in his 
'Anecdotes of Painting.' This man is known to have 
been employed in Guildford with regard to certain 



pictures and the frontal of the altar of the chapel, and it 
is quite possible that he was the author of these works. 

It has, however, been pointed out that William of 
Florence was only an artist of quite ordinary merit, judg- 
ing from the payments made to him ; for, whereas another 
William, a monk of Westminster, who in the 13th century 
was styled the King's painter, was paid as much as 2s. per 
day, William of Florence received only 6d. per day. 
The group of scenes is unique so far as is known, and 
several of the legends referred to are of very rare occur- 
rence. It would seem probable that the medallions were 
executed by an artist of some considerable standing, who 
must also have been a man of original ideas, or else was 
directed by someone of importance. 

The paintings have received in the course of time con- 
siderable damage, and it is even less easy to make out 
their subjects now than it was when Mr. Waller wrote his 
paper upon them. They are, however, of the very 
greatest interest, and deserve careful attention. 

Chapter VII 


' | *HE information available concerning the two crypts 
in the High Street is not very considerable. 

It is rather strange that the standard history of the 
county, Manning and Bray (1804), does not refer to 
these crypts at all. There is no reference to them in 
Aubrey's c Antiquities of Surrey' (17 19), nor in Salmon's 
'Antiquities of Surrey ' (1736), and the printed informa- 
tion concerning them has to be taken from Grose's 
'Antiquities of Surrey' (1773) and from Brayley and 
Britton's 'History of Surrey' (1850), in which the 
description given by Grose is quoted. These can be 
supplemented by the information written by F. Laurence 
in 1842, published by G. W. and J. Russell in 1845, and 
illustrated from drawings by C. C. Pyne. It would 
appear, therefore, that the older historians of the town 
were not familiar with these interesting buildings. 

The first point to be noted with respect to them is that 
the two crypts — one under the Angel and the other under 
the Savings' Bank — are very similar, and must have been 
erected at about the same time. The one under the 
Savings' Bank is about 32 feet 6 inches by 19 feet 6 inches, 
that under the Angel 32 feet 3 inches by 19 feet. Both 
crypts have groined roofs, supported in the central line by 
two circular columns, each about 5 feet 6 inches high and 
18 inches in diameter, from the heads of which, and 
from the sculptured corbels attached to the walls, spring a 
series of intersecting ribs, forming pointed arches, the 
extreme height of which in the south crvpt is 9 feet 


6 inches. There are no wall ribs in either crypt. The 
bases of the columns in the crypt under the Angel are 
larger than those in the south crypt, the columns have no 
capitals, and the intersecting ribs which spring from them 
are perhaps a little less pointed. The extreme height of 
this crypt is 10 feet 3 inches. The sculptured corbels 
in each crypt represent grotesque human heads. The 
north crypt is distinctly plainer and simpler in its character 
than the south one, but they have many characteristics 
in common. 

In the north there are still signs of fresco work, and in 
the south-west bay can yet be seen the traces, painted in 
red and white upon the plaster, of what appears to be a 
representation of the Flight into Egypt. In the early 
part of the last century a much more important fresco ex- 
isted in that crypt, which clearly depicted the Crucifixion 
and the two attendant figures of the Blessed Virgin and 
St. John. It was sketched by a member of the Russell 
family, as even in his time it was fast fading away ; and 
his sketch shows us that both in drawing and in colouring 
it bore a marked resemblance to the fresco work in St. 
Mary's Church. So far as the author is aware, there 
has never been seen any fresco work in the more 
decorative crypt on the south side. 

We do not agree with Mr. Thackeray Turner that they 
were ' without doubt ' undercrofts of merchant town 
houses, as we believe there is strong evidence that they 
had to do with a monastic foundation, and that it was 
probably connected with the White Friars. 

In the centre of the High Street, between these two 
crypts, stood the l Fyshe Crosse,' and when the re- paving 
of the High Street was carried out a large circular mass 
of rubble was discovered in the centre of the street, 
which was pronounced to be early fourteenth century 
work, and was clearly intended as the foundation of a 



% | 

OS g 

- 5 

.3 o 


large and heavy building. On the top of it was some 
brickwork, very thin bricks, more like large tiles appear- 
ing, and the whole was firmly welded together. Close 
down by the side of it was found an ancient key, now in 
our possession, which experts have stated is monastic 
iron-work of the 13th or 14th century. It is a very 
fine example of wrought iron-work, over seven inches 
long, and may probably have been the key to one of the 
crypts or to an oratory in the l Fyshe Crosse.' The 
' Fyshe Crosse ' was removed in the 35th year of 
Elizabeth. In the previous year it is spoken of in the 
town books as the * Whyte Crosse,' the i Whyte Fryers' 
Cross,' the c Fryers' Crosse,' and c the round house, called 
the Fryers' Fyshe Crosse in the parish of St. Mary's 
eastwards on the south side of the street.' 

In the 35th year of Elizabeth the statement in the 
town book reads as follows : i The Fyshe Crosse stand- 
ing neare the Aungell in the parish of St. Mary in 
Guldeford shall be forthwith removed, and the place for 
sellinge all kinde of fresh fish shall be at all tymes for ever 
hereafter kepte and used in the place where the same now 
standeth, and a convenient place shall be appointed and 
built there for the same.' 

There does not appear to have been a fish market ever 
built, and down to 1820 the stalls for the sale of fish 
were erected in the centre of the High Street opposite 
the Angel, although hardly anyone knew the reason for 
holding the market in that curious place, and, as con- 
temporary letters show us, it was a source of great 
bewilderment to many visitors to Guildford. John 
Russell tells us in his note book, that the fish cross had 
on its summit a flying angel carved in stone, that it was 
erected by the white friars in 1345, and, being a great 
obstruction to traffic, was removed in 1595. 

It is not easy to say definitely which friars are referred 


to in these quotations. Speed tells us that there was a 
house of Crutched Friars in Guildford. The Dominican 
Friars, we know, had a very important house in Guild- 
ford, established in 1274 on the occasion of the death of 
Prince Henry, son of Edward I., and Queen Eleanor of 
Castile, and in the church attached to the Friary the 
heart of the Prince was deposited. This house of Black 
Friars lasted till 1538, and was surrendered on October 
1 Oth in that year in accordance with the decrees for the 
suppression of the monasteries. 

Edward II., in the eleventh year of his reign, formed 
the design of adding to this Friary a Sisterhood of the 
same Order, for seven sisters, and of endowing it with a 
competent revenue for its maintenance. He went so far 
as to grant some ground in the town near to St. Mary's 
Church for the purpose, in 131 7, and he wrote from 
Wallingford on April 2nd, and again twice on October 
6th, in 1 31 8, to Rome, to the Pope and to the Car- 
dinals, as to this foundation, sending Richard de Birton 
and Andrew de Aslakeby, brethren of the Order, 
thither in person to support his request. The letters are 
quoted in full in Rymer's Foedera, and are very interest- 
ing documents, but there is not much evidence as to 
what was the result of this correspondence, although the 
King's petition was certainly granted. 

Tanner suggests that the seven sisters of the Order of 
St. Dominic did not come to Guildford, but to Kings- 
clere, but the Rev. C. R. F. Palmer, who was the 
historian of the Dominican Order, stated that he was 
quite certain that seven sisters of one of the Orders 
of Friars did settle in Guildford during the time of 
Edward II., but whether Dominicans or Carmelites he 
was not able to prove. He was inclined to think that 
the sisters were Dominicanesses, but he believed that 
they remained in Guildford a very short time, and were 


followed by Carmelite Friars. He stated that in the 
early part of the reign of Edward III., say about 1330, 
he had evidence in the Household Rolls of the existence 
in Guildford for a few years of a Carmelite house, dedi- 
cated to Our Lady, St. Michael, and all Holy Angels, 
which received the King's bounty. 

The Carmelites were usually called the White Friars, 
from their white cloak. They came to England in the 
13th century, the Whitefriars Church in London having 
been founded in 1241, and there are many references in 
the Guildford books to the Fish Cross in connection 
with their name ; thus it is probable that they it was who 
erected this building, in the same way as they erected 
one at Aylesford. 

Each Carmelite house, as a rule, was complete in 
itself, without mother house or central authority, and it 
is therefore the Order which is most difficult to trace 
with certainty. Father Palmer, however, said that the 
very small one in Guildford possessed a guest-house, and 
it is probable that we have a record of this house in the 
name of the Angel Inn. Probably the convent existed 
on the south side of the street, and the south crypt, or 
undercroft, is the only portion of the building now re- 
maining, and almost the only object which recalls ' the 
coming of the Friars' to Guildford. 

The Angel Inn is believed to occupy the site of the 
guest-house. The sign of the Angel on a really old- 
established inn is a very rare one in England. The 
first coffee-house in this country was established at the 
sign of the Angel in Oxford ; there was an Angel tavern 
in Smithfield, where Joe Miller, the well-known actor 
and wit, used to play ; an Angel at Basingstoke, often 
visited by Ben Jonson ; and an important inn at Gran- 
tham known as the Angel, which was originally a 
Knight Templar foundation. Another Angel was in 


the Strand, behind St. Clement's Church, and to that 
Bishop Hooper was taken in 1555, when on his way to 
the stake. The best known Angel Inn was, and still is, 
the one at Islington, and the fine timber-built erection 
was only pulled down as recently as 1819. These 
seven are almost the only inns bearing the sign of the 
Angel, which date back to anything like antiquity, 
although there are eighteen others in London and some 
twenty more in the provinces having this sign, besides 
very many in which the Angel is associated with some 
other sign. Most of these are, however, of compara- 
tively recent foundation, whereas those just mentioned 
are very ancient houses. Each of the six important 
ones had some connection with a religious house which 
had preceded it, and it is, therefore, probable that the 
Guildford Angel was not an exception to the rule. 

There were three religious guilds in Guildford in the 
fourteenth century, those of Corpus Christi, Jesus, and 
the Holy Angels. Two of them received important 
bequests in 1492, but there is no trace of their ordin- 
ances in the British Museum, nor have we any reference 
to the place where they met. It seems probable, how- 
ever, that two of them were connected with the altars 
bearing similar dedications in St. Mary's Church, and the 
third attached to this religious house. 

It does not follow that either of the undercrofts was 
used for religious purposes. Laurence, in the book 
already quoted, implies that it was so, but it is much 
more likely that they were places of storage under the 
house. The presence of frescoes, however, in the north 
crypt may have reference to the meeting of a guild in 
that building, or the frescoes may have been such religious 
ornamentation as was frequently applied to similar build- 
ings, and would very naturally exist in rooms connected 
with a religious house. 



HANK, iS;S. 
From ..' wt u> drawing by 11. Pi sser. 


In the south crypt the principal entrance is by a 
descending flight of steps from the street, but there has 
evidently been another one, now bricked up ; and in 
some sketches done by Hassell in 1834 this entrance is to 
be seen. On the east side also, as Brayley pointed out, 
there is an indication of a passage about 6 feet in height and 
2 feet 4 inches wide, and in one of the east bays there are 
two large orifices, one of which bears a sort of resemblance 
to an aumbry or piscina. There are signs of a small win- 
dow looking into High Street, which also is now blocked. 

When Brayley wrote his history there was a theory 
that the crypts were connected with the Castle, but this 
he dismissed, and suggested that they had far more the 
character of buildings relating to a religious foundation 
than of those connected with a fortress. This suggestion 
is probably the correct one. In the north crypt there is 
also the sign of another entrance, and from the passage 
leading to it there is recorded in a note-book, written 
in 1800, to have been communication with another vault 
now blocked up. 

In the possession of Mrs. Butler there are some beauti- 
ful drawings of both crypts, one the work of Mr. Prosser 
circa 1830, from which an engraving was made, and 
others earlier, probably drawn by a Mr. Hassell. 
From a sheet of detailed drawings in the possession of the 
same lady it is clear that the corbels were, in the early 
nineteenth century, in far better condition than they are 
at present. Two of these illustrations are, by the kind 
permission of the owner, reproduced in this book. The 
vaulting, it will be noticed, has some slight characteristics 
in common with that of Waverley Abbey, and can cer- 
tainly be attributed to late in the thirteenth or early in the 
fourteenth century. All the work is, of course, in chalk, 
and the arches are beautifully formed, the keystones 
especially being of excellent workmanship. 


The two crypts are almost unique in Surrey. 

There are not more than half-a-dozen examples of 
early fourteenth century architecture in the county, and 
of this number these two undercrofts are by far the most 
important. They are also to a great extent unspoiled, the 
south crypt especially having had no 'restoration 'whatever. 

There are two engravings of the south crypt — one 
executed by Hawkins in 1770 for a work on ancient 
architecture, published by Hogg, 16, Paternoster Row ; 
the other the work of Godfrey, engraved for Grose's 
'Antiquities ' on the 1st of July, 1773. This plate was 
re-engraved by S. Hooper, 30th May, 1875, for a later 
edition of the same book. At that time both crypts 
were occupied by the proprietors of the Angel as stores, 
and the south crypt was full of faggots, some of which 
can be seen in Godfrey's engraving. Grose states that in 
1770 it was so full that he was unable to take the exact 
measurements of it, and could only guess at them. A 
fresh engraving of the south crypt was made by Shury, 
after a drawing by J. R. Thompson, for Brayley's history 
in 1850, and that shows the crypt nearly empty, contain- 
ing only a few planks, baskets, and bottles. Of the north 
crypt there are also two engravings. One, small in pro- 
portion, appears in the book written by Laurence in 
1842, after a drawing by C. C. Pyne, and shows that the 
crypt was then in an untidy state, and contained a good 
deal of rough woodwork. The drawing for this illustra- 
tion is still in existence. The other is from Prosser's 
drawing just mentioned ; and when the drawings were 
made by Hassell and Prosser both the crypts appear to 
have contained barrels of wine or beer. 

For the last fifty years the south crypt has been used as 
a wine store, having been leased successively to Messrs. 
Taunton and the Friary Brewery, and it is still used by 
the last-named firm for this purpose. 





• ft 












i — i 






































It is unfortunate that there is so little definite informa- 
tion respecting the crypts, but it is possible that the few- 
facts which have been here set forth may lead to the 
discovery of more records, and thus our knowledge may 
be increased with respect to these most interesting under- 

Chapter VIII 


/^ UILDFORD Castle is believed to have been erected 
^^in the twelfth century, in the early part of the reign 
of Henry II. It has been stated that the keep, the 
important part which still remains, was built upon an 
artificial mound, but it has been pointed out recently by 
Mr. Maiden that it would be impossible to build a solid 
Norman keep upon the top of an artificial mound, as the 
weight would be too great for the insecure foundation 
even if the mound were, as has been stated, 200 years 
old at the time. A great part of the eminence upon 
which the keep is erected is a natural formation, and it is 
possible that at an earlier time it was surmounted by 
some kind of Saxon fortification. On the demolition of 
this Saxon fortress the mound was probably increased 
in size artificially, but it should be noticed that the east 
wall of the keep is based upon the solid ground, c and is 
built of an extraordinary thickness and solidity, to help in 
holding up the other three sides upon the mound.' 

The first actual mention of the Castle in history is 
when King John paid 4s. for repairing it as a gaol in 
1202, but we read of Henry II. keeping his Christmas 
here in 1 186 and receiving the Legate of Pope Urban II. 
at Guildford when he came to bestow the crown of 
Ireland on Prince John. As already mentioned in the 
first chapter of this book, King John visited Guildford 
very often — no less than nineteen times in eleven different 
years. We know also that Henry III. was at Guildford 
in 1266, and his son, Prince Edward, afterwards Edward I., 
captured in single combat Sir Edmund Gordon, an 



adherent of Simon de Montfort, who had been outlawed 
after the battle of Evesham, and was resting between 
Alton and Farnham. The Prince brought the rebel to 
Guildford and presented him to Queen Eleanor. 

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Churches . 


After the time of Henry III. there is some difficulty 
in deciding as to whether the royal residence at 
Guildford, frequently mentioned in the State papers, 
is Guildford Castle, or the palace in the park which 
certainly existed at a later time. Inasmuch as the 


prisoners for both Surrey and Sussex were during the 
reign of Henry III. confined in Guildford Castle, it 
seems to be more probable that the additions made to 
the royal residence under the direction of Henry III. 
had reference to a building in the park, rather than to 
the Castle. 

The park is referred to in 1301, when the c issues and 
territories ' of the castle, together with those of the town 
and park, were assigned with other property as a dowry 
to Marguerite of France, the second wife of King 
Edward I., and we are disposed to think that the monarchs 
of this period who resided in Guildford did so at a resi- 
dence in Guildford Park rather than in the Castle. On 
the other hand, it is quite possible that the royal apart- 
ments with their elaborate decoration, mentioned in 
Chapter I., may have been situated in the middle ward 
of the Castle, and that the glass windows in the King's 
house and chapel at Guildford, broken by the storm of 
1240, may have been in the same place. It should, 
however, be noticed, that in the domestic rolls the resi- 
dence is spoken of as i the King's house ' or * houses,' 
whereas the word ' Castle ' is used when there are any 
statements as to the detention of prisoners. 

In 12 16, Guildford Castle was taken by Prince Louis 
of France, who had invaded England upon the invitation 
of the Barons in arms against King John, and the same 
fate overtook the Castles of Farnham and Reigate. In 
neither place does there seem to have been any serious 
attempt at defence. 

In the tenth year of Henry III. we hear of the appoint- 
ment of William de Conyers, as custodian of the Castle, 
and in the 39th year of the same reign the office was 
held by Elias de Maunsel, who at that time occupied a 
certain property upon the fosse of the castle, for which 
he paid an annual rent of twopence to the King. 


In the 51st year of the same reign, the custody was 
given to William de Aguillon, who was then Sheriff of 
Surrey, and had charge of the prisoners for that county 
and for Sussex, and it would seem probable, therefore, 
that the Castle was used for a prison. 

In the 35th year of the reign of Edward I., 
Henry de Sey, who was keeper of the King's prison. is 
here, petitioned that they might be transferred to more 
secure custody, as the Castle was not strong enough for 
the purpose to which it was appropriated, and he was 
informed that he might strengthen or enlarge the Castle 
if he liked, but in any case he must keep the prisoners 
securely, as the King did not see fit to provide any other 
place for their detention. 

In the 40th year of Edward III.'s time, when the 
properties of the town were leased to the Corporation, 
there was a reservation of the Castle and the gaol within 
it for the King's use, and in the next year the custody of 
the fortress was given to the Sheriff of Surrey and Sussex, 
Andrew Sackville, for the purpose of a common gaol, 
and also for his own residence. 

In the beginning of the reign of Richard II., the 
Constable of the Castle was Sir Simon Burley, who had 
been tutor to the King before he came to the throne. 
This man was afterwards transferred to Dover Castle, 
and made Chamberlain to the King ; he was beheaded 
for treason in 1388. 

The Castle continued to be used for a gaol for both 
Surrey and Sussex until 1437, when the Sussex prisoners, 
at the petition of that county, were transferred to Lewes, 
but the Surrey prisoners appear to have been kept there 
down to 161 2. It would therefore appear as though 
the building, or at least a considerable part of it, was 
used as a prison almost from the time of its erection, and 
that the site of the royal residence must be sought for 


either in the outer ward of the building, or in Guildford 

In 1612, the site of the Castle with all its appur- 
tenances, was granted by James I. to Francis Carter of 
Guildford, gentleman, who two years afterwards was 
made a freeman of the town. He probably resided in 
the place, as did his brother John, whose initials were 
at one time to be seen above the archway in Quarry 
Street known as Castle Arch, which he appears to have 
repaired. He is believed to have been the John Carter 
who was disfranchised from the freedom and society of 
the Corporation, * being altogether averse and refractory 
to the good government of the town.' The tablet with 
the initials and date is now in the Archaeological 
Society's Museum close at hand. 

From the Carters the property went by an heiress to 
the Goodyear family of Alton, passing afterwards in a 
similar way first to the Thomas family, and then to the 
Matchwicks, by whom, in 1813, the whole estate was 
sold to Charles Duke of Norfolk. His successor sold it 
to Lord Grantley, and in 1886 the property was pur- 
chased by the Corporation of the town, and laid out as a 
town pleasure-ground. 

Lord Ashcombe generously gave a thousand pounds 
towards the cost of the scheme, Mr. Crooke facilitated 
the purchase of the Bowling Green and the inn at its 
corner, and the late Mr. Councillor Colebrooke handed 
over to the Corporation the lease of a building near the 
Castle, in order that a commodious entrance to the 
grounds might be made at the north-east. At the time 
of the purchase some necessary repairs were very judici- 
ously carried out upon the keep, and very considerable 
attention was given by the then Surveyor, Mr. H. Peak, 
to the preservation of the ruin, and to the arrangement of 
the pleasure grounds in the best possible way. 

- fcu; 


U. b< 


— ft 


Premiums were offered to various landscape gardeners 
for suggestions, and it should be mentioned as a curious 
circumstance that the most generally attractive one out 
of the various schemes sent in started its schedule of 
work with a suggestion that the ugly ruin in the centre 
of the grounds should be removed, and in lieu of it should 
be erected a light iron band-stand painted green, picked 
out with gold. It may readily be believed that, although 
in other respects this scheme for the laying out of the 
grounds was a most admirable one, the iconclastic sug- 
gestion it contained prevented its receiving any attention. 

The building does not appear to have ever withstood 
any fighting. As already stated, it passed into the hands 
of Louis of France in 1216, and was surrendered again 
in the following year. It is not mentioned during the 
Wars of the Roses, and was not garrisoned during the 
wars of Charles I. Early in Richard II. 's time, we 
know that some of the building had fallen, and as much 
of the roof as remained was removed at the end of the 
reign of Henry VIII. 

It has certainly been a royal residence, but it has 
never witnessed the meeting of any Parliament or great 
council, and its career has been a quiet and comparatively 
uneventful one. 

The only important archaeological feature of the interior 
consists of the rude carvings in one of the chambers. 
Various figures can be made out ; a great St. Christopher, 
a Syrian hermit with a hat, lamp, and staff, a Crucifix 
with two attendant figures, a figure reposing in a canoe- 
shaped coffin, a representation of St. Sebastian, a group 
which appears to represent Adam and Eve beneath a 
tree, the wheel of St. Catherine, some crosses, crowns, 
and concentric triangles. It is quite impossible to state 
when these carvings were done, but they are generally 
attributed to the thirteenth century, and are in all 



probability the work of prisoners confined in the 

A good deal of legend has naturally been associated 
with the building. Sir Thomas Mallory connects 
Astolat with Guildford, and considers that it was here 
that the fair maiden pined to death for Sir Launcelot. 
A less pleasant story connected with the Castle refers to 
the massacre by Godwin, Earl of Kent, but there is no 
historical evidence for either story. 

There have been many suppositions respecting the 
chalk caverns near to the Castle, and the scene of the 
treachery of Earl Godwin and the torture of Prince 
Alfred's followers has been associated with them, and 
the old name of the approach to these caverns, Rack 
Close, has also been used as evidence for the fantastic tale. 
The Rack Close, however, has no reference whatever to 
torture chambers, but the piece of ground derives that 
name from the fact that in it were situated the large 
wooden racks on which the blue cloth made in Guild- 
ford was exposed by the clothiers to the sun for drying 
after it had been dyed. 

These caverns were undoubtedly the quarries from 
which the chalk used for the building of a great many 
houses in the town was taken. A peculiar kind of very 
hard chalk without flint was obtained from them, which 
was well adapted for building purposes ; and a micro- 
scopic examination of the flint used in St. Mary's Church, 
in part of the Castle keep, and in many of the older 
houses of the town, reveals the identity between that 
chalk and the chalk still to be found in these quarries. 
It is probable that during Henry III.'s time, when a good 
deal of wine was kept in Guildford for the King, that it 
was stored in these caverns. It was brought from the 
King's vineyards in Gascony and Poitou, and there are 
to be found in the rolls many references to the King's 




wines stored at Guildford, and orders were given that no 
other wine was to be sold in Surrey until the royal stock 
was disposed of. 

The only occasion upon which the caverns have any 
definite mention in history occurs in 1688, when large 
numbers of the women and children of Guildford con- 
cealed themselves in these caves on the occasion of the 
landing of the Prince of Orange, afterwards William III., 
when it was expected that, owing to the flight of the 
rightful monarch, the kingdom would be plunged into 
civil war. 

The caverns are eight in number, the longest being 100 
feet long and the widest about 30 feet wide, the height from 
floor to roof varying from 5 feet to 7 feet. Both floor and 
roof follow the natural divisions between the successive 
strata, and are inclined down towards the north-west. In 
the fifth chamber there is an entrance to a deep well, which 
was sunk from the grounds of South Hill House when it 
was the residence of the Governor of Guildford Gaol ; 
and it is said that in 1 830 some convicts who were em- 
ployed in sinking this well discovered the entrance to the 
caverns part of the way down and made their escape, and 
the entrance to the caverns was then ordered to be 
built up. 

The caverns were carefully surveyed in 1868 by Cor- 
poral Robert Macdonald, and in 187 1 a plan of them was 
prepared, and an article respecting them was read before 
the Royal Archaeological Institute by Captain James, who 
was then in charge of the Ordnance Survey. 

Chapter IX 


} I *HE most important building in Guildford High 
"** Street is undoubtedly the Hospital of the Blessed 
Trinity, usually called, from the name of its founder, 
Abbot's Hospital. Some reference has already been 
made in these pages to the Abbot family, and the story of 
the life of the great Archbishop has been well told in the 
memoir published by Russell in 1777, and more recently 
in the work by Mr. Judges entitled ' In and Around 
Guildford,' 1895. It is, therefore, unnecessary to recapitu- 
late in this volume the history of this great benefactor 
to the town, but some attention must be given to the 
building he erected. 

In 1 6 14 the idea of emulating his predecessor, Arch- 
bishop Whitgift, by the erection of a hospital at Guild- 
ford on somewhat the same lines as the one built at 
Croydon appears to have occurred to the Archbishop, and 
is foreshadowed in a letter to the Mayor of Guildford. 
On the 5th of April, 161 9, he attended to lay the first 
stone of the building, which was completed in 1622, and 
a charter obtained for its government from the King. 
The first Master was Richard Abbot, the Primate's eldesi 
brother, and an endowment calculated to produce £300 i j 
year was set aside by the Archbishop for the advantage o J 
his Hospital. He drew up very careful and elaborate 
statutes for its government, providing that the inhabitant 
should be unmarried persons of not less than sixty year 
of age, born in Guildford or resident there for twenty 
years. The endowments have increased in value, am 

Fro»: ti water colour draining, circa i S ; 4 . 



the inmates now number twenty-two, and receive a 
weekly allowance as well as certain extra gifts. 

The appearance of the building recalls that of an 
old college. There is a handsome front elevation and 
great entrance gateway leading into an enclosed quad- 
rangle, round which are the buildings. On the right of 
the entrance are the Master's rooms, where Abbot him- 
self resided for a while in 1621 after the accident in 
Bramshill Park, by which he had unfortunately killed 
a park-keeper who had ridden between himself and the 
deer. A commission of ten persons was obliged under 
Canon Law to consider the question as to whether he 
could discharge his functions as Primate, and during the 
time of the sitting of this commission the Archbishop 
was in residence at Guildford, employing his time in 
literary work and in arranging about his Hospital. 

Certain special features of importance in the Hospital 
must be referred to. The Archbishop's coat-of-arms, 
most beautifully painted, appears in a great many of the 
windows, and with it is usually associated the punning 
motto, c Clamamus Abba Pater,' which may be translated 
either in the words from the Epistle of St. Paul to 
the Romans, chapter viii, verse 15, 'We cry "Abba, 
Father," ' or ' We call Abbot our father.' 

The oak panelling in the dining-hall and the sitting- 
room for the use of the brethren and sisters is exceedingly 
fine, but it is surpassed in beauty by the panelling of the 
Master's rooms, and the staircase leading to the Board- 
room is, with its magnificent carved newel-posts, one 
of the finest examples in existence of Jacobean oak 

In the chapel facing the entrance in the extreme left 
corner of the quadrangle are two very beautiful windows 
of painted glass, respecting the history of which there has 
been some controversy. There seems to be little doubt, 


however, that the lights which contain the stories of 
Isaac, Jacob, and Esau were purchased by the Archbishop 
from the Friary, and originally adorned the chapel of that 
building, as has been mentioned in Chapter IV. Con- 
siderable additions must, however, have been made to 
these windows in 1 621, and the exquisite tabernacle work, 
with the various heraldic achievements, was probably 
painted for the Hospital, and is always said to have 
been done by the same artist who carried out the windows 
at Lincoln College Chapel given by the Archbishop's 
friend, the Lord Keeper Williams. 

It seems, however, to be possible that the stonework of 
the east window was removed entirely from the Friary 
Chapel. It certainly did not form part of the original 
scheme for the erection of the building, as the string 
course has been cut into for its insertion, and the window 
is out of proportion to the little chapel and far too large 
for it to have been planned for the wall in which it is 

It is possible that, if the papers belonging to the 
Governors were carefully examined, some information as 
to the erection of the chapel might come to light, but it 
is clear that the glass in that window is of three separate 
dates, part of it — especially the tabernacle work — belong- 
ing to about 1 62 1, the lights, probably Flemish, of some- 
what earlier date, and some of the coats-of-arms and the 
four angels belonging to an earlier period than the storied 
lights below them. 

It may be interesting to record the fact that in the 
room immediately over the great entrance, the window of 
which, with its casing of iron bars, can be seen from the 
quadrangle, was confined the Duke of Monmouth after 
the battle of Sedgemoor, when he was lodged in Guild- 
ford for one night on his way to London. 

There are a few important pictures in the Hospital, 


the Board-room containing a portrait of the founder, 
painted in 1623, attributed by Mr. Whitburn to a scholar 
of Paul Van Somer ; one of Sir Nicholas Kempe, a friend 
of the Archbishop and a benefactor to the Hospital, 
painted by Paul Van Somer on a panel ; and one of 
another benefactor, Alderman Jackman, the work of 
John Russell, R.A., dated 1786, and the gift of the 
artist to the Hospital. 

In the same room there are four portraits of Reformers, 
Sebastian Munster, John Wickliff, John Fox, and John 
Calvin. These were given in 1809 by the Earl of 
Onslow, and the one of John Fox is attributed to a 
clever Flemish painter, Marc Garrard ; the portrait of 
Calvin is in black and white, and was evidently intended 
as the first scheme for an engraving. 

In the dining-hall there is a picture containing the 
portraits of Admiral Pollen with his wife and infant 
daughter. The lower part of it is attributed by Mr. 
Whitburn to Hogarth, and the painting of the hands is 
exceedingly fine. The upper part has been added by an 
incompetent restorer. There are also three landscapes 
of eighteenth century work, one representing a house 
with a formal garden, another the street of a village, and 
the third a fox-hunt. They are considered to be the 
work of a Dutch artist resident in England. 

In the room over the dining-hall are a portrait of 
Queen Anne, considered by Mr. Whitburn to be the 
work of Michael Dahl, and two portraits, a lady and a 
gentleman, which may be given to Hudson. There is 
also the sketch of a portrait of a lady in a white dress, 
with two children in white, generally believed to be the 
work of John Russell, R.A. The altar-piece in the 
chapel, representing the Entombment, given by Lord 
Onslow prior to June 4th, 1787, is an Italian work of 
the latter part of the sixteenth century, ascribed to the 


school of Bologna, and in the same building is an excel- 
lent copy of ' The Flagellation,' by Rembrandt, made 
by Mr. Whitburn, and presented by him to the Hos- 

Attention should be directed to the exquisite quality 
of the brick-work in the building, to the remarkable lead- 
work shown in the heads of the lead water-pipes, some 
of which bear the arms and initials of the Archbishop, 
and to the very fine oak table and oak forms in the 
dining-hall. In the same room is a fine carved oak 
settle, worth notice, and upstairs in the Board-room are 
a very remarkable series of old Chippendale chairs, a fine 
Jacobean dining-table, several important carved oak 
chairs, and the leather chair mentioned in Chapter IV., 
in which Daniel Colwall committed suicide. The 
carving of the mantel-piece in this room is also of 
unusual excellence, and the doorways throughout the 
Hospital deserve careful attention. 

In the garden is a fine double stone staircase, and a 
beautiful old well-house with a charming roof. 

Abbot took considerable interest in the cloth trade of 
Guildford, an industry already alluded to in Chapter III. 
He wrote to the Mayor of the town in 1614 to urge 
that steps should be taken to revive the manufacture of 
woollen cloth, then seriously declining. 

He suggested that the making of broadcloths, either 
blue or mingled, should be revived, and with this letter he 
sent £100, to be distributed through the town in giving 
four or five pounds to every man who would set up a 
loom in the place. Some years later, he appropriated the 
annual rent of £60, arising out of land at Burstow, and 
£40 arising out of land at Charlwood, to the employ- 
ment of young persons in some manufacture to be set up 
and carried on within the town, but his efforts to revive a 
decaying industry were in vain, and, although an attempt 


was made to carry out his wishes, in establishing a manu- 
factory for the making of linen, and another for woollen 
cloth in 1656, yet neither was a success, and the income 
of the land was partly devoted to the inmates of the 
Hospital, and partly devoted to gifts to poor tradesmen of 
the town. 

Later on these funds became the nucleus for the 
creation of Archbishop Abbot's School for boys. 

So earnest was the Archbishop in his desire for the 
improvement of the trade of Guildford, that he required 
the brethren of the Hospital to wear gowns of Guildford 
blue cloth when they attended Divine service. There is 
an entry in the records of the Hospital, under date 1630, 
of a payment of ^22 10s. to John West, a clothier of 
Guildford, for 100 yards of Mallard cloth, made in the 
town, at 4s. 6d. a yard. A similar entry occurs in 1633 
of the same amount of money, and it is recorded that the 
measurement was '10 if yards,' the if yards being 
allowed in to make good measure. 

The gowns are still worn, and are adorned with the 
beautiful silver mitres in use in Abbot's time, but it has 
long since been impossible to obtain Guildford cloth, and, 
in accordance with the statutes, new cloth is provided 
every few years, which is obtained of as near the same 
quality and colour as the Guildford cloth as possible. 

It is a very curious fact that, although the cloth indus- 
try had entirely vanished long before 1795, when the 
later tokens of Guildford were issued, the tradition 
respecting it should be still continued to such an extent 
that the words * Success to the Woollen Manufacture ' 
and the representation of Bishop Blaise with a wool- 
comb should appear on the tokens. The town books 
show quite clearly that, seventy years before this, no 
cloth had been made in Guildford, and it is therefore 
supposed, either that the striker of the tokens was 



unacquainted with the decay of the industry, or else 
that he made use of certain dies struck for places in 
Yorkshire, where the industry was still in existence, and 
placed them on the Guildford tokens for sentimental 
rather than for practical reasons. 

Many of the important benefactors of Guildford were 
clothiers or cloth manufacturers, and it is recorded that 
in the additions made to the Grammar School in 1582 
by Robert Brodbridge, a cloth-worker, this benefactor 
4 didd at his own charge well and substantially glasse all 
the windowes belonging to the said usher's lodgings, and 
in every windowe hath caused his cloathing mark to be 
sett in a quarrell of glasse, all which cost him about 
tenne poundes.' 

Mention has already been made of the close in which 
the cloth was exposed to dry, and which still retains its 
name of Rack Close, and there is a building in a passage 
in the High Street which has always gone by the name 
of the Manufactory, and where the cloth was made, 
while the mill at the foot of the town was of old times 
called the Fulling Mill, and the name still survives. 

One of the main reasons for the existence of this 
interesting trade consisted in the fact that not only was 
the water of the river especially good for the fulling, but 
that on the neighbouring hills could be found three plants 
in constant use. The fullers' teasle still grows near 
Guildford, the buckthorn used for dyeing purposes is yet 
to be found on the Farnham Road, and the woad plant, 
' Isatis Tinctoria,' from which the earliest blue dye was 
extracted, still grows in considerable quantities in one of 
the quarries close to the town. 

A few extracts from the records of the Hospital in the 
first few years of its existence may be perhaps of some 

The brethren and sisters were paid a crown per week 



in 1630, and at that time the land at Merrow was let at 
£50 per year, but the following year only £40 was 
received for rental. 

John Killinghall, of Guildford, in 1631, supplied a 
great brass pot, weighing in all 42 pounds, at yd. a 
pound, with a handle to it which cost 6d., the entire 
bill amounting to £1 12s. The same man also supplied 
eight pewter dishes, weighing 24 pounds, at nd. per 
pound, £1 2s. 

Other entries are as follows : 

t s. d. 

1 63 1. Paid for a quire of paper to make a 

great book -------004 

1632. Paid for a tub to fetch beer for the 

feast- ------__o 1 6 

Paid for a new bucket for the well 024 
Paid to Mr. Butler for painted glass 

which Goody Chessam's boy did 

wilfully break ------02 6 

Paid to Goodman West for nine 

van-loads of charcoal ----990 
Paid for one load of wood ---oil 

1633. Paid to John Bailey of Guildford, 

the tailor, for the making of 

twenty gowns ------ 1100 

Paid for rope for the bell, weighing 

4 \ pounds ------oiio 

Paid for a bushel basket for the 

coals ------_-oo 5 

Paid to Martin Hall for four ridge- 
tiles and for laying them on our 
roof-top -------008 

Paid for bringing home Sir Nicholas 
Kempe's picture, given by Sir 
Maurice Abbot -----004 


Paid for a Christmas Day's dinner jC s. d. 
for us all - - - - - - - 010 o 

1634. Paid to Mr. Dobson for binding 

and stringing the book of statutes 
which was delivered to my Lord- 030 
Paid to Goodman Reed for 500 
bricks, 6s. 8d. ; 500 tiles, 6s. 8d. ; 
and a load of sand, is. 4d. - - 014 8 

1635. Paid for boring holes in our pear- 

tree ---------002 

Paid to Mr. Baldwin for law-suits 

against Mr. Halwood - - - 1 6 6 

In this year there appears a curious entry of the receipt 
of the rent for the farm at Merrow, £40, as follows : 

' There wanted sixpence of this ^40, as Sparkes 
knows well, but he has not paid it.' 

1636. Paid to Mr. Miles, that set up my £ s. d. 

Lord's tomb, for putting up a 
crown over the King's arms over 
the gate, which the wind decayed 050 

Paid for a horse to Goodman West, 
to ride with Mr. E. Abbot - - o 2 6 

Paid to the Master for his expenses 
in going to London three times 
about the Hospital business for 
advice to a lawyer - - - - 017 6 

Paid to Widow Lee and Widow 
Chapman for relieving of the sick 
for a whole year -----013 4 
1638. Paid to Thomas Hogsflesh and 
William Smallpeice, tailors of 
Guildford, for making 20 gowns, 
at is. 6d. the gown - - - - 1 10 o 



During these few years it would appear that the Vice- 
Master of the Hospital had 13s. 4d. a year for his extra 
services, and the parson of Trinity Church was paid 
30s. a year for attending to the inmates, and the clerk 
who accompanied him is. per year. 

The first Master of the Hospital, Richard Abbot, con- 
tinued in office for six years and a half. He was succeeded 
by Jasper Yardley, who was appointed by the Arch- 
bishop, and who was in office for nine years, and the 
following are the Masters who succeeded him : 

1639. Henry Snelling. 

1644. Thomas Smith. 

1654. Henry Horner. 

1 69 1. Rev. John Holland, parson of Holy 
Trinity, as the clergyman of this 
parish, has the right to be Master of 
the Hospital, if he is a bachelor or 
widower, and desires the office. 

1 69 1. Samuel Shaw. 

1702. Samuel Barton. 

1709. Robert Berry. 

1 7 19. Thomas Sands. 

1729. Ephraim Woods. 

1734. Henry Stoughton. 

1744. Hugh Moth. 

1749. William Goodyear. 

1762. Rev. Cornelius Jeale. 

1762. Michael Wallace. 

1769. George L. White. 

1792. Richard Elkins. 

1809. Samuel Russell. 

1824. Samuel Robinson. 

1833. Jesse Boxall. 

1846. Andrew Hooke. 


1853. George Russell. 
1 86 1. Thomas Terry. 
1885. G. Challen. 
Present time. Thomas Harris. 

There are two portraits of the Archbishop at Lambeth 
Palace, but one of the most interesting portraits belongs 
to the author of this book. It has been attributed to 
Cornelis Janssens, who was in England when Abbot was 
Archbishop. It originally hung in Croydon Palace in 
the Archbishop's dining-room, but, when the Palace was 
dismantled, was bought by the Rev. P. Brandon, Rector 
of Deal, who possessed it for some years, and then left it 
by will to his son. This son sold it to the Kingsley 
family, and while in the possession of one of that family 
it was seen by John Russell, R.A., who purchased it and 
sent it down to Guildford for his father. 

It belonged to three generations of the Russell family, 
and at a sale in the High Street, when their printing 
business was given up, it was purchased by Dr. Caleb 
Woodyer, at that time resident in Allen House, who 
bequeathed it to his son, the well-known ecclesiastical 
architect, Henry Woodyer, and at his sale it was acquired 
by its present owner, still bearing the label at its back 
recording its original purchase by the Rev. P. Brandon. 

It closely resembles a well-known portrait of Abbot, 
engraved by Houbraken, which, he says, was taken 
* from a picture in the possession of Mr. Kingsley.' The 
costume is identical save as regards the hat, but the 
engraver has taken the usual liberties with the counte- 
nance, and has lost some of the sternness of feature to be 
seen in the portraits at Lambeth and by Van Somer in 
the Hospital. 


From the original painting, area 1618, by Cornells Janssens y in the 
possession of the author. 

Chapter X 


fT may perhaps be of interest to devote a few pages to 
the account of some of the books which have a more 
or less close connection with Guildford. Several works 
were written by Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury, of 
which perhaps the most noteworthy was his ' Briefe 
Description of the Whole World,' a i2mo. book, of 
which there were many editions, 1599, 1600, 1603, 
1608, 1613, 1617, called the ninth, 1620, 1624, 1634, 
1635, 1636, 1642, 1656, and 1664. 

Another was ' An Exposition upon the Prophet 
Jonah, contained in Certain Sermons preached at St. 
Mary's Church, Oxford,' a small 4to. of 638 pages, 
issued in 1600. 

Others that may be mentioned are : i A Sermon 
Preached at Westminster at the Funeral of the Earl of 
Dorset,' 4to., 1608 and 161 1; * The Archbishop's 
Decision as to the Marriage of the Earl of Essex,' 
i2mo., 1 613 ; * Questiones Lex,' etc., Oxford, 1598; 
the 'Answer to the Questions of the Citizens of London 
as to Cheapside Cross,' 1641 ; the 'Reasons of Dr. 
Hill for the upholding of Papistry Unmasked,' 4to., 
1 604 ; and c Judgment as to the Bowing at the Name 
of Jesus,' 8vo., 1632, and others, but perhaps the most 
interesting to Guildford people is the small 4to., 1624, 
entitled ' A Treatise of Perpetual Visibilitie and Succes- 
sion of the True Church in all Ages,' as this volume 
was written at Guildford when the Archbishop, accord- 
to his own words, was i full of pain in spirit.' 


The majority of the books relating to the history of 
the town bear the imprint of members of the Russell 
family, and, as some confusion has arisen with regard to 
the different members of this family, it may be well to 
give here a brief sketch of their history, which may aid 
in clearing up any confusion of identity. 

Since 1509 the Russell family have been connected 
with the town ; but it will suffice for our purpose if we 
commence our remarks at John Russell, four times 
Mayor of Guildford, who was born January 21st, 1711, 
and died June 1st, 1804. He married Ann Parvish, 
and had a family of seven children. 

He was a bookseller in Guildford, occupying premises 
at No. 32 High Street, now the residence of Messrs. W. 
Stent and Sons, his successors. He took much interest 
in his native town, and his imprint — * J. Russell, book- 
seller, 1777' — appears on the first edition of ( The 
History and Description of Guildford' and upon 'The 
Adventures of the Guildford Jackdaw.' 

It is not very clear as to which member of the family 
actually wrote the i History of Guildford,' but it was 
probably not the work of one hand alone. Very possibly 
John Russell himself superintended the work, but the 
actual literary work was in all probability done by his 
third son, Thomas (born 1748 ; died 1822), who was 
afterwards Rector of Clandon, and who appears to have 
been the most literary and archaeological member of this 
remarkable family. John Russell later on took his 
second son Samuel (born 1746 ; died 1824) into partner- 
ship. The ' History of Guildford ' was at that time only 
a shilling pamphlet of 24 pages, and the second edition, 
enlarged, which contained 44 pages, was issued in 1800, 
and bears the imprint of ' J. and S. Russell.' Both of 
these editions are very scarce. 

The complete edition of the ( History of Guildford * 


appeared the next year, 1801, bearing the same imprint. 
It had by that time become a substantial book of 328 
pages, crowded with interesting matter most accurately 
and carefully extracted from the original books and MSS. 
belonging to the town. Unfortunately its general ar- 
rangement leaves much to be desired, and its want 
of an index is a very considerable drawback to its 

As the standard work on the subject it is, however, 
still of the greatest importance, and it is the most valuable 
contribution ever yet made towards a full history of the 
town. Thomas Russell had an evident intention of 
illustrating it very fully, as many exquisite drawings are 
still extant which he made for the purpose. Some 
copies, indeed, were issued with some views cut from 
his father's c North-west Prospect,' and mounted on 
plain pages, and some with a folding view of the town, 
cleverly drawn by the father, John Russell. An 8vo. 
view of the town from the same gifted hand adorns 
other copies, and many possess the two portraits of 
Archbishop Abbot and Sir Nicholas Kempe which were 
prepared for the * Life of Abbot,' to which we refer 
further on. The folding plate of Trinity Hospital, 
from the same book, is to be found occasionally in the 
* History ' ; but the only plate which actually belongs 
to the book and was prepared for it, and does not appear 
in other works, is the plate of Guildford traders' tokens 
issued in the seventeenth century. 

The pagination of the book is most peculiar. The 
general pagination is i.-xii. and 1-328 ; but, in addition 
to this, pages 95-102 inclusive appear five times, and 
are distinguished in this quadruple arrangement by the 
addition to the figures of one, two, three and four stars. 
Pages 143 and 144, 175-182 inclusive, and 187-206 
inclusive are also doubled, the extra pages being starred 



by one asterisk. There are several minor differences 
between the copies issued, but all are of the same edition, 
and the discrepancies due to the eccentricities of publisher 
and printer. A few rough woodcuts adorn the book. 
Thomas Russell's own copy, which is still extant, is 
diligently corrected and annotated in view of a new edi- 
tion, and many of the extra notes added by the author 
are of special value. He died, however, before the 
demand arose for a second edition of his book. 

The Rev. Thomas Russell certainly wrote the 
' Guildford Jackdaw,' and his brother John drew the 
illustrations in Indian ink very beautifully, and the same 
size as the present very rough woodcuts. Thomas also 
kept a commonplace book which is in the writer's posses- 
sion, and recorded in it very many important notes 
on the history of the town and county. By some 
printed forms which are fastened into it we can see that 
he was preparing for a history of the county on a large 
scale, which he was probably only prevented from carry- 
ing out by his death in 1822. The other children of 
the Mayor were three daughters, Ann, Elizabeth and 
Katharine, and another son William, who married Ann 
Baker, and from whom are descended the present repre- 
sentatives in Guildford of the family, and those who 
still in other parts of the county bear the family name. 

William Russell has left at least one water-colour draw- 
ing, that of Hedingham Castle, in the possession of the 
Misses Russell, but his share of the family genius showed 
itself in an excellent taste and capability in sculpture. 

The father's imprint also appears upon the * Life 
of Abbot,' published in 1777, the same year as the first 
edition of the ' History,' and this, although only a com- 
pilation, is yet a very skilful one, and may probably be 
traced to the hand of Thomas Russell, who would at 
that time be about twenty-nine years of age. One of 


the drawings in the book (that of the Hospital), was also 
his work, but the other two, the portraits of the Arch- 
bishop and Sir Nicholas Kempe were the work of his 
more gifted elder brother, John. The well-known view 
of the Grammar School was also the work of the Rev. 
Thomas Russell, and another very charming picture, en- 
titled 'A View of Guildford,' came from the same hand. 

To the father himself we are indebted for ' The 
North-west Prospect of Guildford ' with its surrounding 
smaller views of buildings, published by c John Russell, 
jun.,' as he then called himself, in 1759, and for the 
other view of Guildford from the North-west, pub- 
lished in 1782. Whose work this first prospect actually 
was we hardly know, unless, as we believe, the book- 
seller, John Russell, not only published, but drew 
it, as he states in the margin. It could not have been 
John Russell the Royal Academician's work, as he at 
that time was but fourteen years old, although it has been 
attributed to him. 

In 1739 a book entitled 'An Inquiry into the Jewish 
and Christian Revelation ' was printed for its author, 
Samuel Parvish, and sold by him in Guildford, and this 
writer is believed to have been the father of the Ann 
Parvish who married the Mayor, and was mother 
to the Royal Academician. One other book, published 
1 in 1772 by the worthy paterfamilias, must be mentioned, 
and that is the ' Poetical Blossoms, Poems, Odes and 
Translations,' by Richard Valpy. The book was written 
when the author was but sixteen, but he lived to become 
a very eminent Greek scholar and author, and was great- 
grandfather to the present Chairman of the Grammar 
School. John Russell also possessed a taste for carving, 
and a tobacco-stopper is still preserved by the Misses 
Russell, the ivory head of which represents a greyhound 
seizing a hare, and is very cleverly carved. 



The eldest son was the most gifted member, and is by 
far the best known for his beautiful portraits in pastel* ; 
but there are younger branches of the family who 
merit recognition. William, the youngest son, already 
mentioned, had seventeen children. George, the eldest, 
was specially artistic, and prepared some water-colour 
sketches of the old Friary for the 1845 edition of the 
' History.' Samuel married Marianne Sharpe, of Gat- 
wick Hall, and died in 1875, leaving two daughters. 

George, in conjunction with his bachelor brothers 
William and John, carried on the bookselling and pub- 
lishing business, and for many years printed Russell's 
Almanack, and did most of the local printing. 

To their press we are indebted for many local pam- 
phlets of great interest, now very rare, especially the 
history of the Chennell murder and story of Mary Toft, 
and for the race-cards and play-bills and almanacks or 
the town. All three partners were eminently disquali- 
fied for success in trade, all being disappointed men, 
forced by the mistaken care of their father to turn their 
backs on the careers they longed for and follow uncon- 
genial pursuits. George had desired to be an artist, 
William a soldier, and was compelled to decline an 
offered commission in the Royal Artillery, while John 
was studying for holy orders, with a view to succeeding 
his uncle Thomas at Clandon. They all had strong 
artistic tastes, and have left piles of sketches to prove it. 

It is to them that we are indebted for the last edition 
of the ' History of Guildford,' which is really an entirely 
difTerent book to the others. It is entitled * A Descrip- 
tive and Historical View of Guildford,' and was published 
in 1845, bearing the imprint of ' G., W. and J. Russell.' 
Mr. C. C. Pyne, afterwards drawing-master at the 
Grammar School, made most of the drawings, which 

* Sec 'John Russell, R.A., his life and work,' by Geo. C. Williamson, 1894. 


were engraved by Thomson. Some were, however, as 
we have before said, made by the senior partner of the 
firm himself. The book is an 8vo. of 212 pages, and 
full of interest, and was written for Messrs. Russell 
by a Mr. F. Laurence in 1842. This fact, not hitherto 
known, is rendered certain by the autograph inscription 
in the copy of the book given in 1852 by the author to 
his friend Mr. Parry, in which he has recorded the 
fact of his authorship and the date when he wrote the 
book. This volume is now in the writer's possession. 

Mr. Samuel Russell was the last of the family to pass 
away, and in Guildford are still his two daughters, the 
Misses Russell, the last remaining residents of this impor- 
tant family, highly respected and esteemed. The youngest 
son of William Russell, Edward James Rideall (born 1795; 
died 1 871) did not enter his brothers' business. His child- 
ren are still living. Of the three sons, one is Rector of 
Todmorden, another was Minor Canon of St. Paul's, and 
a third (also in holy orders) resides at Lewes, and there 
are besides two sisters. 

A very scarce book, published in 1701 in Swan Lane, 
Guildford (at that time the Paternoster Row of the place, 
and the residence of the principal booksellers), printed for 
Isaac Walker, was the work of a local medical man, 
David Irish by name. He was a quack practitioner in 
physic and surgery at Stoke, and kept a private lunatic 
asylum. His residence was the old house in Wood- 
bridge Road now occupied by Mr. Carter the veterinary 
surgeon. The work is in two parts, the first commenc- 
ing with a preface of twenty-four pages, wherein the 
author ' vindicates himself, confutes the slanderers of his 
name, and gives some general friendly advertisement 
to his loving neighbours and countrymen and to the 


courteous readers.' He then proceeds to give some infor- 
mation as to his own life, and to abuse all other doctors, 
most writers, and almost every learned man with whom 
he was acquainted. 

He says he was descended from an ancient family in 
Scotland, whose grandfather came with James I., and 
was splendidly interred at Weekham Church in Hamp- 
shire. His father, he states, had considerable fortune, 
but was defrauded of it, and was a skilful mathematician 
who followed the trade of a mill-wright, and was buried 
in Beckhampton Church. His grandfather, on his 
mother's side, he says, was coachman to Queen Eliza- 
beth, and named Bishop, and he concludes his preface 
with the following words : 

In fine, I was born and baptized at Weekham 
aforesaid, but God knows where I shall lay my 
bones ; I have two brothers, the one is heir both 
to the estate and virtue of his ancestors, the other 
degenerates as much, and therefore is bad, the 
eldest lives on his own freehold in Havant, the 
other I know not where, his wickedness is fat- 
greater grief to my soul than the malice of my 
enemies can make it prejudicial to my reputation. 

He then proceeds to advertise his method of curing 
lunatics, extracting teeth, performing operations, and 
treating his various patients, he gives his charges and 
his hours, and mentions the names of some of his reme- 
dies, finishing up by wholesale abuse of every other 
doctor in Guildford, whom he speaks of by nicknames 
given to them by him. 

The book also contains a lengthy treatise on the cure 
of madness, a diffuse meditation on man's depravity, and 
an advertisement of his own invaluable antidote against 


the smallpox, while the second part is concerned with 
astrological and prophetical statements, and with a 
definite announcement of the end of the world in 1859, 
and a very careful explanation of all the mysteries of the 
book of Revelation. 

As the work of a quack of the very first order, the 
work is peculiarly amusing and interesting. 

Chapter XI 




A MOST interesting parcel of old deeds has come 
into the hands of the Guildford Friends, and from 
them it has been possible to put together some history 
regarding early Quaker life in the town, and especially as 
to the purchase by the Friends of their burying-ground in 
North Street. This quiet spot in Guildford, possibly 
unknown to very many, has been for the past 200 years 
the burying-place of the Guildford Meeting of Quakers. 
Few religious bodies have passed through so much trouble, 
vicissitude, and difficulty as the Friends, and, much of 
their history having been written in pain and affliction, 
a few gleanings culled from the records of the Meeting at 
Guildford may perhaps have an interest that will extend 
beyond the narrow circle of the members of the commu- 
nity remaining in the town. 

From a work on i Early Friends,' by T. W. Marsh, 
we gather that the first minute-book of the Guildford 
monthly meeting refers to those who preached the doc- 
trine of the Friends being received in 1655 Dv some 
members of the community at Guildford and Godalming, 
and it is at once of interest to read the name of * Henery 
Gill ' (a namesake, but no relation, of the kind Friend 
who holds the deeds in question) as one specially named 
in the list at that early time. In 1687, in a subsequent 
minute, l the house in which Stephen Wickes dwelleth at 
Guildford ' is referred to as the place of meeting in the 
town. In 1673 the Friends appear to have first acquired 


property in the town when they purchased of John Lee, 
inn-holder, a plot of ground described as being about 
15 yards by 13 yards, together with the Gate Room 
adjoining, being at the rear of the Crown Inn, and with 
a frontage to what was then called the North Town 
Ditch, and in the tenure of Widow Penfold. With this 
property they purchased a most valuable right of way 
through the yard of the Crown Inn from High Street to 
North Street, which secures the right for ever in an 
unalienable manner to * all people commonly called 
Quakers, of egress and ingress with or without burdens, 
from four in the morning till ten in the evening, without 
let or hindrance.' 

The sum of £125 was paid for the purchase, and it is 
needless to add that the right of usage and way is still 
most carefully guarded ; and, although not now needed to 
protect Quakers from molestation and persecution on their 
way to and from their meeting-house, is nevertheless a 
most valuable and valued right. 

The deeds of purchase commence (by recital) in the 
fifth year of Philip and Mary, and the first deed, dated 
26th September, 1558, is a lease from Richard Babb, of 
Guildford, John Atlinger, John Darkinge, Thomas 
Smallpeice, and William Snelling to Thomas Coxe, of 
Guildford, yeoman, of the hostel then known as the 
Crown Inn, and of certain other property in the lane 
known as Aderton or Stoke Lane. This reference to 
another name for Stoke Lane (now Chertsey Street) is 
entirely new to us, and must be investigated further. 

Following this deed comes one of the 26th March, 1 669, 
being a lease from Thomas Coxe to John Lee. Accom- 
panying it is a slip relating to a fine of £100. The original 
is in Latin, and written in a very beautiful but extremely 
difficult handwriting ; but there is a copy in legal running 
hand, which bears the following quaint endorsement : 


' My son's copy of the deed of fine, confirming my 
sggestion which the Guildford Attorneys, John Small- 
peice, the Town Clerk, and John Sibthorpe, could not 
read or make out. 

4 Morris Birkbeck, 8 mo. 13, 18 10.' 

Small wonder that the solicitors of the day failed to 
read the crabbed writing, or to interpret the legal Latin or 
the slip, as many solicitors, save those whom special 
experience or particular study have made proficient 
in such matters, would be unable to decipher the deed. 

Friend Birkbeck's endorsement might, however, be read 
in another way, reflecting upon the manner in which he 
wrote his suggestion, whatever it was ; but we fear his 
intention was to poke fun at the legal luminaries of 
the day. 

These ' fines ' were practically deeds transferring land, 
not payments, as we now understand the word. They 
were nominally the finis, or end, of a fictitious suit. Fines 
which did not relate exclusively to real property operated 
nominally as an amicable arrangement, putting an end 
(finis) to hostile suit in the King's Court, and early be- 
came a popular method of conveyance, not only from 
their efficacy, but from the safety insured to a purchaser 
by the fact of a duplicate of each fine being preserved as 
a record in the custody of the court. 

The purchase of the property by the Friends followed 
the date of the fine by which John Lee, being the then 
possessor in fee simple of the whole of the inn, sells 
a portion of it with the consent of his wife Ann, * a con- 
senting party thereunto.' The inn appears to have 
formed part of the marriage portion of Ann Lee, and 
there is a deed executed by her on September 7th, 1674, 
releasing it from her dowry. The deed of sale, dated 6th 
December, 1673, is in the name of four trustees : 


John Cooper, baker, 

Anthony Crosfield, glazier, 

Stephen Wickes, clothworker, 

John Remnant, tallow-chandler. 
It is possible that Stephen Wickes may have resided in 
the house known as the Gate House, which was probably 
a residence over the back entrance gateway to the inn, as 
we learn from the minute-book that there was a tenement 
belonging to the meeting-house, and that for some twenty 
years Wickes remained as a tenant of the Friends. In 
1695 he found himself unable to pay the usual rent or 
50s. per annum, but he evidently did not deserve or 
receive much sympathy in his difficulty, for in 1695 the 
Friends, * having weighed and considered the matter, 
unanimously concluded he should pay it, and also the 
arrears, and he was requested to "voyd" the house.' 

Anthony Crosfield, the second trustee, was a benefactor 
to the Friends, and in the private instructions of his will, 
in 1739, he directs c that a sum of £100 should be ap- 
plied in part towards the enlargement of the ground, and 
in part for the use of the poor.' 

Mr. Marsh states that no time was lost in erecting a 
convenient meeting-house upon the ground, and in the 
Dorking Meeting minute-book of 1674 is an order desir- 
ing Friends to contribute to a fund * to reimburse Friends 
of Guildford in a summe of money Laid out by them for 
ye building of a meeting-housee.' 

John Remnant, the fourth trustee, resided in St. Mary's 
parish, and was appointed collector for the poor for that 
parish in 1669. He was also appointed surveyor of high- 
ways for the same parish on December 29th, 167 1, and 
overseer of highways for the same, December 29th, 1674. 
In 1670, we learn from Besse's ' Sufferings of the 
Quakers' * that with two others he had a distress served 

* Vol. i., p. 699. 


upon him in which goods valued at £ij 16s. were taken 
from the three of them for an attendance at a meeting held 
in the street when kept out of their meeting-house at 

A similar calamity at the same time befell John Cooper, 
Anthony Crosfield, and another, and their goods were 
valued at £ij 15s. 

It was in 1670 that we read from his diary that 
George Fox visited Guildford. In his journal* under 
that year he states : 

1 And afterwards we passed into Surrey, visiting 
Friends, and had many precious Meetings, till we came 
to Stephen Smith's, near Guildford, where great perse- 
cutions had been and very much Goods had been taken 
away from Friends thereabouts for their Meetings, and 
under great Threatnings they were at that time. Yet 
we had several blessed Meetings there and thereabouts, 
and the Lord's Power was over all, in and by which we 
were preserved.' 

Again, in 1680, Fox. states that he was ' moved of 
the Lord to go visit Friends in some parts of Surrey and 
Sussex,' and in naming several places at which he had 
meetings he refers to Worplesdon and Guildford. t In 
1683 we again hear of Fox at Guildford * visiting 
Friends,'J and in 1687 we read: 'After this I went 
from Kingston to Guildford to visit Friends there, and 
stay'd three days with them, and had a large and very 
good Meeting there on the First day of the Week.'§ 

Stephen Smith, to whom Fox alludes, resided at 
Worplesdon, and in an entry under date 1677 we read : 
* As we passed through Surrey, hearing that the Quar- 
terly Meeting for that County was that day, William 
Penn, John Burnyeat and I went from the road to it, 

* Page 342, orig. edit., 1694, folio. f Ut supra, 480. 

\ Ut supra, 503. § Ut supra, 579. 


and after the Meeting, returning to our other Company 
on the road, went on with them to William Penn's that 
night, which is Forty Miles from London. I stayed at 
Worminghurst about three weeks, and I answered a very 
curious and wicked book which one Roger Williams, 
a Priest of New England (or some Colony thereabouts), 
had written against Truth and Friends. When we had 
finished that service we went with Stephen Smith (who 
was there with us) to his house at Worplesdon in Surrey, 
where we had a large Meeting. Friends thereaway 
had been exceeding plundered about Two Months 
before on the Priest's account, for they took from 
Stephen Smith Five Kine (being all he had) for about 
Fifty shillings Tithes.' 

Fox had visited Stephen Smith on a previous occasion 
in 1673, and we read in this connection that 'at Stephen 
Smith's in Surrey there was a very large Meeting, many 
Hundreds of People being at it. I stayed in those parts 
till I had cleared myself of the Service the Lord had 
given me to do there, and then returned by Kingston to 

Stephen Smith was an eminent man amongst the 
Friends, and the writer of many works. From John 
Whiting's c Persecution Exposed,' we take the following 
extract, abbreviated : 

c This year (1678) died that faithful servant of God, 
Stephen Smith, of Worplesdon, in Surrey, a man of 
account in the World. He was born the 15th of the 
7th month, 1623, and resided some time at Scanderoon 
(Alexandria), in Syria, as a merchant. He received the 
truth in 1665, an< ^ g ave U P t0 obey it and walk therein > 
and suffered both in person and estate by imprisonment 
and spoil of goods. An honest upright man, one that 
feared God and was of good report in his country ; the 

* Ut supra, 387. 


Lord endued him with a gift ot ministry. He laid down 
the body, dying in peace with the Lord at his own house 
near Guildford, 22nd of 7th Month, 1678, entering into 
the 56th year of his age. He wrote some pretty ser- 
viceable Books and Papers, which are collected in 8vo., 
intituled, " The True Light discovered to all who desire 
to walk in the Day." 1679.' 

T. W. Marsh informs us (page 19) that it does not 
appear that a meeting-house was ever built at Worples- 
don, and the Meeting, being reduced in numbers, was 
amalgamated with that of Guildford in 1739. A burial- 
ground, however, existed, which was sold in 1852 ; and 
the writer remembers as a little boy, when staying with 
the late Mr. Jesse Wells at Merrest Wood Farm, 
Worplesdon, being taken up by him to the cornfield 
occupying the site of the old burial-ground, and having 
the boundaries of the land pointed out by Mr. Wells. 
The ground has long since been merged in the fields 
near, the boundaries and hedges removed, and the exact 
spot changed very much in appearance. 

Stephen Smith is said to have lived in the large 
gray farmhouse near Merrest Wood by the side of the 
road, and the meetings were held in the orchard next 
the house, and in the winter in the large stone-floored 
kitchen. The orchard was probably the scene of the 
meeting described by Fox, at which several hundreds 

George Fox visited the house on many occasions, and 
was also often at Farnham, and in all probability visited 
Guildford in 1656, 1658 and 1668, beside the dates 
already mentioned, as in these years he was in Surrey, 
and on his way either to or from Farnham. 

Another Friend equally celebrated — to wit, William 
Penn — was often at Guildford in 1679. At tnat ti me 
Algernon Sidney made an ineffectual struggle to obtain 


a seat in Parliament through the suffrages of the men of 

Guildford. From i Bohun on Elections ' we learn that 

the inhabitants of Black Horse Lane, now styled Chapel 

Street, were unanimous in his favour ; and the street, 

within the memory of those still living, was called 

Sidney's Alley. These inhabitants were probably the 

Dissenters of their day, clustering around their two 

meeting-houses — the one Congregationalist, now the 

Mission Hall, and the other Baptist, known as the 

Charcoal Barn Chapel, from the building having been 

erected on the site of the town store for charcoal. The 

stern old patriot Sidney had a strong party in the 

borough, and Penn, who was then resident in Sussex, at 

Worminghurst, about five and a half miles from Steyn- 

ing, enthusiastically supported him, and was politically 

identified with Guildford in that year. 

In 1684 there was an appointment of fresh trustees, who 

are named as follows : 

Thomas Seaman, of Shier, 

Robert Smith, ) rT ,r , , 

Richard Baker, } ° f Wot P 1 « Jo »' >'«° me »> 

John Woods, ) f nr , 
, r . TI7 . ' , ,- or Witley, yeomen, 

1 nomas Woods, ) J ' J 

Robert Mildred, of Guildford, husbandman, 

Caleb Woods, of Guildford, maltster, and 

John Smith, of Godalming, haberdasher. 

From the Guildford records we learn that Caleb Woods 

was chosen in 1679 to be one of the Borough Ale-tasters, 

but, refusing to take the oath of admittance into that 

office, had his goods taken by distress to the value of 

;£i 1 os. Robert Mildred, in 1677, refused to take the 

same oath, and was fined £2 6s. 6d. 

Caleb Woods and Robert Mildred, being chosen 

Tithingmen in the same year, refused to take the oath of 

admittance into that office, and had their goods taken 


away, the former to the value of ^3 10s. and those of the 
latter to the value of j£io. 

In 1680, on the 25th of July, Thomas Seaman, of 
Shere, for being at a meeting at Guildford, had his goods 
taken away to the value of £13. This unfortunate 
man was also imprisoned on a writ ' de excommuni- 
cato capiendo,' at the suit of the churchwardens, for 
refusing to contribute toward the repair of the parish 

Truly the system of obtaining subscriptions toward the 
restoration of churches was a grim one in those days ! In 
the following year Seaman was again in trouble for non- 
payment of tithes, and corn value £j belonging to him 
was seized, and the next year exactly the same occurred, 
while on previous occasions — in 1661 and 1662 — cows 
value £12 and ^10 were seized for the same payment ; 
and he was on yet another occasion imprisoned in the 
White Lion Prison in Southwark for attending the meet- 
ing at Guildford. As to the two trustees from Worplesdon, 
we read the same tale of cruel treatment. Claims were 
made against them to the value of £8 14s. and ^8 ios., 
but goods were seized to the value of £ij ios. and £18, 
and no money was returned to the unhappy owners. 

The remaining two trustees had to bear the same 
burden, and on July 3rd, 1683, we find the names of 
John and Thomas Woods amongst those prosecuted at 
the Quarter Sessions at Guildford for absence from 
national worship, and in the following August, on a 
similar indictment, Caleb Woods and Stephen Wickes 
were prosecuted for one month's absence from the parish 

It cost something in those days of rigorous prosecution 
to have the courage of convictions and to announce one's 
self a Quaker. Imprisonment was a frequent punish- 

* Besse's 'Sufferings,' Vol. i. p. 700. 



ment, and so harsh was the treatment, and so bad were the 
gaols, that many of those imprisoned died in confinement. 
Fines to the extent of £20 for a month's absence from 
church were constantly inflicted, and there was no liberty 
of the person. A mittimus could be issued at any time 
upon information of illegal worship, and forthwith the 
poor Quaker was seized, taken from his bed or his work, 
and sent off to the Marshalsea, while his wife and children 
suffered or starved amidst a bitter and heartless people. 
The hatred against these early Friends it is difficult to 
understand, but their very quietness and inoffensiveness 
seemed of itself rebuking the populace — a cause of 
offence. We read of their being in Surrey, and even in 
Guildford, put into the river, kicked and trampled upon, 
covered with mud and filth, and stoned ; and their 
offences causing all this ill-treatment were non-attend- 
ance at church, refusal to pay tithes and take oaths, and 
worshipping in their own homes and at their meeting- 
house. In the Guildford minute-book appears, without 
comment, a letter releasing Friends from the difficulty as 
to the oath, which stood in the way of their acceptance 
of municipal and other offices. It is from Whitehall, 
November 6th, 1687, and is directed to the Lord Mayor 
of London, and signed, ' Sunderland, by command of the 
King.' It conveys * His Majesty's commands that his 
pleasure is that all Quakers should now and for the 
future either be allowed to serve the offices without 
taking any oathes, or else that they be not fined or 
otherwise molested on the like occasion,' and commands 
that orders be given accordingly. It was a most impor- 
tant privilege for the Friends, gained with much difficulty 
after much suffering, and was hailed with praise and 
thanksgiving as the act of a generous and thoughtful 

It was at this time that the small traders' tokens were 



issued in the country, and in the course of our investiga- 
tion we have found that they were, as a rule, struck by 
the leading and most important traders in the various 
towns. If that were the case in Guildford, then the 
Friends must have been largely amongst the prosperous 
traders of the day, for many of the tokens were issued by 

John Remnant, Thomas Tompson and James 
Snelling were amongst the number of Guildford Friends 
who issued tokens. To them and to the way in which 
they were persecuted we have already alluded in 
Chapter III. 

The next appointment of trustees for the Guildford 
property was in 1756, and the following persons were 
appointed in lieu of those deceased : 

Edward Ffawkes, draper, 

Richard Croker, cutler, 

Joseph Chandler, mealman — all of Guildford. 

Edward Pritchard, and), , , 

t, . . T ^.j , ' ^botn mealmen, 

.Benjamin Kidd, j 7 

Elijah Warting, surgeon, 

Thomas Edsell, wheelwright, 

William Peto, carpenter — all of Godalming. 

Benjamin Kidd, of the above-named trustees, became 
a minister of the Society, and his was the first testimony 
issued from the Guildford Meeting. A testimony is an 
obituary account of a Friend who has taken some distinct 
and noteworthy position in the Society, and such testi- 
monies are still issued by the Society. Members of the 
Kidd family still reside at Bramley. 

In this deed we find that the new trustees were to pay 
to the remaining old ones a peppercorn annual rent if so 
demanded, which is the first appearance in the deeds of 
this legal fiction of a rent. 


The ground was in this deed described as a burying- 
ground, but the meeting-house is not mentioned. The 
Gate House, however, is spoken of, and we presume, 
therefore, that this house was still standing, and probably 
contained the meeting-room. The name of Edward 
Ffawkes recalls the name of one of the founders of the 
Society, George Fox, as we believe the name of the 
trustee to have only been a different form of spelling 

In 1777 another appointment or trustees took place, 
and we record the names as follows : 
Thomas Passinger, mealman, 
John Cooper, the younger, baker, 
William Deane, chapman, 
John Mildred, cheesemonger, 
William Brabant, of Wonersh, maltster, 
John Penfold, of Shalford, farmer, 
John Baker, of Worplesdon, the son of the old 

trustee of the same name, and 
Thomas Constable, of Worplesdon, yeoman. 
In 1797 many of these had passed away, and a fresh 
deed was necessary. We then read of the appointment 
of the following : 

Richard Kidd, of Godalming, mealman, 

Morris Birkbeck, junior, of Wanborow Farm, 

Robert Moline, of Godalming, grocer, 
John Sweetaple, of Catshill Mill, miller, 
William and Thomas Chandler, of Godalming, 

Jesse Waller, druggist (uncle of the late Mr. 

Waller Martin, of Guildford), 
Richard Daws, the younger, of Wanborow, 

yeoman, and 
John Kidd, of Godalming, mealman. 


In 1747 Samuel Bownas, a visiting Friend, speaks 
in a journal of Guildford Meeting as follows : ' Thence 
to Guildford, where we had a very small and poor 
meeting. ' 

A little later, in 1793, another Friend, Job Scott, 
mentions attending c the fore and afternoon meeting at 
Guildford, in which Truth reigned, though things are 
low there.'* It is evident from the minute-books at 
this time that the ancient building in which the Friends 
had met since 1673 was rapidly approaching a condition 
of dissolution. The monthly meeting held at Godalming 
7 of 1 mo., 1803, appointed three Friends 'to inspect 
the state of Guildford and Godalming meeting-houses, 
and make report.' 

In the same year, at a meeting held at Guildford 1 ot 
2 mo., we read that ' the Friends appointed report that 
they have examined the state of Guildford Meeting- 
house, and it appeared to want considerable repair, and 
the said Friends are desired to get an estimate of the 
expense and bring it to the next monthly meeting.' 

A little later, on 1 of 4 mo., 1803, the minute-books 
record that at a monthly meeting held at Guildford it is 
stated that ' the meeting-house at Guildford being so far 
gone to decay, this meeting requests the judgment of the 
quarterly meeting whether to repair or rebuild.' 

On the 8th of the 6th month in the following year, a 
committee was appointed, consisting of William Chandler, 
Thomas Chandler, Robert Moline, John Pritchard and 
Richard Kidd, to fix on a plan and make reports, and 
on the 6th of the next month, at a meeting held at 
Godalming, Morris Birkbeck was added to the com- 
mittee, and Robert Moline was desired to collect the 

As we have already seen, the two brothers Chandler, 

* Marsh's * Early Friends,' p. 15. 


Richard Kidd, Morris Birkbeck and Robert Moline 
were five of the trustees of the existing meeting- 

The work was carried on between this time and 
February, 1806, as the monthly meeting held at Guild- 
ford, 7 of 2 mo., 1806, is mentioned as being ' the first 
meeting held in the new meeting-house,' and in this 
meeting-house was held the quarterly meeting for Surrey 
and Sussex on the 1 of 7 mo., 1806. 

During the time of building the meeting-house, the 
Friends hired a room in which to meet, at a cost of 
£12 1 OS. ; the total cost of the new meeting-house was 
£1,120 6s. 9d. 

The ground, purchased of Mr. Martyr, and at that 
time having a frontage to North Street and situate 
nearly opposite the old building, cost £105. The other 
chief items recorded are : 

c John Silvester, carpenter, his own, and the smiths, 
plumbers and slaters' bills £505 is. 6d. 

i Edward Upton, bricklayer, £452 18s. 

i Removing earth and other work in the new and old 
houses, also 1,000 bricks for the old buryinej-cjround, 
£4 5s. 8d.' 

The bricks were probably to build the wall on the 
north side of the burying-ground where the old meeting- 
house stood. 

It is curious to find an entry reading, c Beer for 
workmen 13s. 5d.,' as we are quite sure such an 
item would be most unlikely to appear in charges for 
the erection of Friends' meeting-houses in the present 

The cost of the new building seems very high, con- 
sidering the absolute plainness of the structure and fit- 
tings, but doubtless all the work was of the very best, 
although with that we fancy some heavy profits were 


made by the contractors employed on the work. Against 
these expenses we find recorded as receipts : 

* The materials of the old meeting-house, £jS- 
i Of a neighbour for a small slip of the premises to 
enlarge his yard, ^30. 

i Subscribed by Guildford monthly meeting, £303 3s.' 
Other monthly meetings also subscribed, and from 
many parts of England, from Devon to Westmoreland, 
came subscriptions. It was an era for building meeting- 
houses in this neighbourhood, for one was erected at 
Lewes in 1784, at Horsham in 1785, and at Brighton 
in 1805, so we mav fairly reckon that the Friends ot 
Surrey and Sussex were both numerous and fairly well-to- 
do at that time. 

There were two more purchases made by the Society 
which must be recorded. The first is a purchase for 
£5, on May 17th, 1827, from the ' Mayor and approved 
men' of Guildford, of a piece of waste land, ' about 
20 feet by 13 feet, towards the Town Ditch,' which 
very land the Corporation have had thoughts of buying 
back from the Friends. The purchase is signed by 
Richard Kidd, mealman ; Robert Moline, grocer ; Jesse 
Waller, druggist ; John Jeffreys, one of the sergeants 
at mace ; and Edmund Vincent, gentleman, on behalr 
of the Society ; and by Joseph Hockley for Wiiliam 
Baldwin, and Edward Mason on behalf of the town, 
and bears the Corporation seal. The other purchase 
was made in 1875, and is a plot of land 46 feet, 
6 inches, by 23 feet, with a frontage to Ward Street, 
and is noted as being Lot No. 53 of the Ward Estate. 

Little remains for us to say. The last trust deed 
made contains many names, and it will bring our infor- 
mation up to date if we mention them. They are : 
E. Waller Martin, Albert J. Crosfield, 

John Cheal, Henry J. Gill, 


Thomas Nichalls, Joseph Cheal, 

Thomas Marsh, Arthur Dann, 

T. W. Marsh, Thomas Sydney Marriage, 

Joseph Robinson, C. C. Marriage, 

John Robinson, Chas. J. Peirson, 

John H. Dale, S. A. Sholl. 

We have now arrived at quieter times, and in the 
comfort of their new meeting-house we would leave our 
worthy Friends secure at length in freedom from per- 
secution, and in the peaceable enjoyment of a right of 
private judgment. 

Within the past few months attention has been drawn 
to praise of the Quakers coming from an unexpected 
source. Cardinal Manning, in his * Internal Mission of 
the Holy Ghost,' uses the following remarkable words : 
i The Quakers hold fast to the fundamental truth of the 
reality of the work of the Holy Ghost. They limit the 
workings of the Divine Spirit to the individual soul of 
man. All that they need to learn,' says the Cardinal, 
c to come into the fulness of truth, is that the Holy 
Spirit works through the Church of God.' 

We cannot conclude this chapter of the history of 
Guildford without expressing our thanks both to Mr. 
Gill for the sight of the deeds, and to Mr. Rickman, of 
Dorking, for extracts from the minute-books of the later 
period of this eventful story of the meeting-house and 
burying-ground of the people of peace. 

Chapter XII 


(~^ UILDFORD was for many generations notorious 
^^ for its riots. It was, perhaps, not more riotous at 
election times than were many other places, but its 
Fifth of November disturbances were special, and it had a 
most unenviable reputation for the disorder that existed in 
the town at that time. Each successive November was 
the occasion for the assembling together of the disorderly 
people of the place, and all who had a grievance against 
their fellow townsmen united to perform acts of revenge 
upon that occasion. 

The disturbance was so considerable that all the trades- 
men in the High Street closed their houses of business 
early in the day, and many of them barricaded their 
shop-fronts and provided all kinds of appliances for ex- 
tinguishing fire in case of serious accident. The rioters 
assembled on the outside of the town, and early in the 
evening made their appearance in the High Street, coming 
down Quarry Street. They were generally known as 
the Guys, and they were disguised in various ways. They 
came marching along in military fashion, many of them 
carrying lighted torches and bundles of chips and faggots. 
They were armed with most formidable bludgeons, and 
were dressed in all kinds of grotesque costumes. 

Their cry will never be forgotten by anyone 
who ever heard it. It was a thrilling, piercing note 
of peculiar intensity, and was a warning for all peaceable 
citizens to be on their guard. A huge bonfire was rapidly 
built and lighted opposite Holy Trinity Church, and upon 
it were piled all kinds of gates, palings, and palisades that 

•t ^CJf 


z ft, 

w s 



had been broken down by the victorious rioters and had 
been taken away from the houses of all to whom they 
owed a special grudge. In some cases, even doors, carts, 
and household appliances were seized and piled on to this 
bonfire ; fireworks were let off, the rioters danced round 
this bonfire and proceeded up and down the street, insult- 
ing all persons who were about, and breaking windows 
and doing other serious damage in all directions. 

One of the worst riots occurred in 1863, and on 
that occasion there were no less than two appearances of 
the Guys — one on the 10th of March, the Prince of 
Wales's wedding-day, and another, as usual, in Novem- 
ber. Dr. Eager's windows were broken, his door- 
plate was battered in, his knocker and the ornaments 
of the door stolen, and a considerable amount of damage 
was done to his house, both back and front, by way of 
proving to him how unpopular he was. These riotous 
occasions were a source of great terror to the inhabitants 
of the town, and the destruction of property was very 

It was known that many citizens who were supposed 
to be peaceable persons took part in them, and on more 
than one occasion a man who was disguised found, to his 
horror, that some of the woodwork he was helping to 
destroy had been obtained from his own premises, and 
was, perchance, his own front gate or a portion of his 

The matter gradually assumed such a serious aspect 
that the town determined to put an end to the riots, 
and the new Borough Chief Constable, Mr. Law, pressed 
very strongly upon the Corporation the necessity for 
taking firm action. 

In 1863, Mr. P. W. Jacob, who had been a magistrate 
in India, was elected Mayor on the understanding that he 
was to continue in office until the riots were disposed of. 


He was Mayor for four years, and the worst riot of all 
occurred during his Mayoralty in 1865. On that occa- 
sion an attempt was made to murder Police-constable 
Stent, who was carried into Mr. Waller Martin's shop 
bleeding profusely, and was in danger of his life from the 
inflammation and erysipelas, which afterwards ensued. 

In the previous year another attack had been made 
upon a police-constable, who was so injured that later 
on he died, but it had not been found possible to deter- 
mine who were his assailants or to capture any of them. 
On January 6th, 1866, however, four men were brought 
up for trial in connection with the attack upon Stent, and 
the weapon with which he was injured, and which was 
successfully used in the previous year's attack, was cap- 
tured. The four men were : William Nugent, John 
Pearson, George Stevens [alias Jumbo), and Edwin 
Reeves, and they were committed for trial and were 
removed to Horsemonger Lane Jail. 

When Mr. Jacob became Mayor he armed the con- 
stables with cutlasses, which weapons still adorn the 
Borough Police Station. He also swore in a good many 
special constables, in some cases men who were believed 
to be connected with the riots. He had detachments of 
Lancers in and near the town, and took every step neces- 
sary to put down the riots. He was patient, and on one 
occasion read the Riot Act no less than three times-— 
from the balcony of the Town Hall, from the steps 
of Holy Trinity Church, and from the Ram Corner — 
before he ordered the soldiers to clear the streets. 

But for the use of the cutlasses, the men who made the 
murderous attempt upon Constable Stent would not have 
been captured. Constables West, Titley, Marshall, 
Davis, and Braddon, with the Chief Constable, were all 
concerned in the capture, and each constable was attacked, 
Davis and West receiving very serious injuries. Mr. 


Bakewell, of Market Street, produced in court a huge 
piece of granite, weighing over forty pounds, which had 
been thrown by the Guys into his shop. 

The weapon carried by the leader or the riots in 
1865 is now in the author's possession. It is about 
3 feet long, painted green, and well roughened at one end 
to afford a good grasp. It is formed from a heavy pole or 
about 1 J- inches diameter, thickly studded with the 
square nails used by cobblers for heavy boots. At the 
upper end is a murderous 3-inch sharp-pointed iron spike, 
and below it are studded a quantity of iron brads, driven 
in at the heads, with the points protruding more than 
half an inch. It is ostentatiously marked * V.R.', in 
imitation of the special constables' staves. A more 
dangerous weapon for breaking the Queen's peace could 
hardly have been made, and it has the appearance more 
of a cannibal club than of any weapon of civilised 

This riot of 1865 was the last serious one in the town. 
In the following year — the last of Mr. Jacob's Mayoralty 
— a strong attempt was made to revive the riots, but 
mounted soldiers quickly cleared the streets ; their horses 
broke up the bonfire and scattered its materials in all 
directions. In 1868, when Mr. Upperton was Mayor, 
a final attempt was made, but the rioters were dispersed 
by the constables and their special assistants ; and since 
then, to the great satisfaction of all peaceable citizens, 
horrible disturbances have ceased, and the persons and 
property of Guildford men and women have no longer 
been at the mercy of a disaffected mob. 

The destruction of the whole of the glass at the 
draper's shop kept by Mr. Weale will be remembered as 
one of the notable events of these riots, and on these and 
on other occasions there was grave danger of the whole 
premises being burnt down, as the rioters, having broken 


the glass, threw fireworks into the room. On another 
occasion almost all the palisading enclosing what is now 
known as the Sports Ground was torn down, and no less 
than nine carts were filled with this woodwork when it 
was brought by the Guys to the bonfire. 

The party disputes at the time of the elections were 
also a fruitful source of disorder, and it may be interesting 
perhaps to review the procedure at one of them, as 
the habits of the time have so completely changed. 

As an example, the General Election of 1790 may be 
selected. The Mayor at the time was John Russell, Mr. 
Sibthorpe was Town Clerk, the Hon. Fletcher Norton 
Recorder, and George, Lord Onslow and Cranley, 
High Steward. The magistrates (who had all served the 
office of Mayor), were Messrs. Peche, Stares, Brinkwell, 
Vincent, Wise, and Pickstone, and these gentlemen took 
somewhat the position now assigned to aldermen, the last 
three only, with the Mayor, being Justices of the Peace. 
The bailiffs were twenty-eight in number — Messrs. 
Beauchamp, Richard Elkins, E. Elkins, Haydon, Willes, 
Gunn, Jennings, Sparkes, William Russell, Samuel Rus- 
sell, Terry, Arundel, Kingham, C. Booker, Bladworth, 
Wakeford, Harrison, Goodyear, John Nealds, Plaisto, 
Cooke, Humphrey, Nye, Leggatt, Jeffries, Hawkley, 
Horn, and Tickner. 

The precept for the writ was received by the Mayor 
from Mr. Samuel Long, the Sheriff", and, on the 21st or 
June, at eight o'clock in the morning, the Mayor, assisted 
by A. Piggott, his counsel, came to the Town Hall. The 
Acts for the prevention of bribery and corruption and for 
preventing others than freemen from voting were read, 
and the three candidates were proposed. 

The Hon. Thomas Onslow was proposed by Mr. John 
Shrubb and supported by Mr. William Newland, the old 
doctor then resident where Miss Wenham's school was 


lately carried on. The Hon. Major-General Chappie 
Norton was proposed by Mr. Martyr and supported by Dr. 
Smith, and Mr. George Sumner was nominated by Mr. 
Skurrey and supported by the Rev. Mr. Clifton. 

The poll commenced at ten o'clock and closed at five 
that same afternoon, and it was an interesting perform- 
ance, as each candidate was represented by counsel, 
who had the privilege of questioning the voters 
one by one as they came to record their votes. All 
the questions and answers were taken down and after- 
wards printed, and from the books of the proceedings 
the information as to these elections is taken. The counsel 
were empowered to call for the production of the deeds 
of the property under which the freeholders claimed, but 
in many cases the deeds were not produced, and the voters 
refused to produce them. 

A Mr. William Parsons, scrivener, ot High Street, 
voting for Sumner, was seriously questioned whether, 
having two houses, one in and one without the town, the 
former was not expressly retained for the purposes of the 
vote. He explained that he used it as an office, but did 
not live there, but he had lodged for forty nights in the 
house. The rent he paid was £j a year, and he let oft 
part of it for four guineas, so he had a vote for less than 
£3 a year. Mr. John Oliver, of High Street, was ques- 
tioned in the following way : 

c How long have you had your freehold ? ' 

1 About three weeks.' 

' Do you not mean to sell directly after the election r ' 

c 1 never mean to sell it.' 

* Did you not say how you would vote if that house 
was not sold ? ' 

« No, I did not.' 

* Did not your landlord say that he had sold the house 
in order that his tenant might vote ? ' 


These words being proved, it was held that a man who 
takes property on the eve of an election should not be 
admitted to vote, but the opposing counsel cleverly made 
out that no one could have known for certain three weeks 
before the election that an election was to take place, 
although they might have fancied it would do, and there 
was, therefore, no legal proof that the property was ob- 
tained for the vote, and it was allowed. 

Mr. Henry Horner, a carpenter, claimed to vote for a 
house conveyed to him only the previous day by Mr. 
Hockley, which, the counsel affirmed, was to be re-con- 
veyed back the day the election was over. Here, again, 
there could be no legal proof; and, as the first conveyance 
was in order, the vote was passed. 

Mr. Solomon Saker, a patten-maker, declared that he 
had bought his own premises, but could produce no con- 
veyance. Mr. Dunn, the agent to Lord Cranley, 
happened, however, most conveniently to be in court, and 
in reply to a question gave the equivocal answer that Lord 
Cranley received no rent of Saker now. This was 
accepted as prima facie evidence that Lord Cranley had 
sold and Saker had bought the property, and the vote was 

Another voter had always paid rates up till quite lately, 
but for two years no rates had been demanded, and he 
therefore concluded that the property had been given him, 
and that he was a freeholder, and voted accordingly. 

In another case, the rate collector had forgotten to make 
up his book, and he stated he believed the voter owned 
the house in which he lived, but was not quite sure. The 
voter himself declared that he did, but had forgotten when 
he bought it, and the vote was passed. 

Mr. Benjamin Keene was questioned as to whether he 
or his wife received parochial relief, which would have 
invalidated his vote, but neither he nor Mrs. Keene were 


able to remember as to whether they ever had received it, 
and the somewhat, curious lapse of memory affected the 
various witnesses in court, who could none of them be 
quite sure whether the Keenes had been in receipt of 
relief or not. Oddly enough, the relief-book could not 
be found ; but, as the Mayor stated that it would take a 
long time to search for it, and other voters were coming 
along, he passed the vote. 

Mr. Samuel Cole, of the Grammar School, declared 
that one wall of a stable was his freehold, and proved it 
from the fact that he put a cow in the stable. Nobody 
had ever seen the cow in the stable till the previous day, 
but that did not matter, and Mr. Cole's claim to vote 
was allowed. 

Mr. Vincent said he had a wine-cellar and kept wine 
in it. Twelve bottles, he declared, were his ; the owner 
of the rest of the bottles, believing that Mr. Vincent was 
right, stated that these twelve bottles were certainly not 
his property, therefore Mr. Vincent was declared free- 
holder of the cellar, and he had his vote. 

In the addresses given by the voters one notices a change 
in the names of many of the streets. Chapel Street was 
then recorded as Black Horse Lane, Milkhouse Gate as 
Saddler's Gate, Park Street as Park Lane, Swan Lane as 
Swan Yard or Book Yard, and part of High Street as 
Prince's Street or Duke Street. Some of the trades of 
the freeholders are such as do not now appear — such as 
scrivener, tinplate- worker, cordwainer, patten-maker, 
stirrup-merchant, net-maker, peruke-maker, and glover. 

The poll at five o'clock stood as follows : Onslow, 67 ; 
Norton, 43 ; Sumner, 46, the voters having been only 
86 in number. Of all these, four, being citizens of Lon- 
don, were not questioned at all, the Mayor stating that, 
inasmuch as they had come all the way from London to 
vote, it was quite clear that they possessed votes, and it 


would only waste the time of the court to ask them what 
these votes were. 

The next day, at ten o'clock, the court opened, but 
General Norton at once announced that he found there was 
an apparent majority against him ; and, although it was 
but small — three only — it was yet decisive, and would not 
permit him to continue the poll. A memorandum in the 
poll-book shows that he had polled all his votes, whereas 
his opponents had a few more to come, and he therefore 
resigned, and Onslow and Sumner were declared elected. 

The expenses of the counsel for the Mayor were 
divided amongst the three candidates, and Mr. Pigott 
received the thanks of the electors, and was admitted to 
the freedom of the town without payment of fine. The 
poll-book then records the speeches of the candidates, 
with the following quaint statement at the end, that * as 
it is not expected, so it cannot be the wish of the gen- 
tlemen to see the whole of their extemporary orations 
printed, not to say that it might give cause of offence to 

In Mr. Sumner's speech he admitted himself to be 
overcome with gratitude to the electors, and unable to 
say more, but he continued speaking for more than half- 
an-hour longer. There were only two hundred persons 
qualified to vote at that time, and the Beadle who lived 
at Rat's Gate, Mr. Peche, the Surveyor of Windows, 
Mr. Sturt the painter, Mr. Dowlen the collar-maker, 
and Mr. William Russell the musician, were all voting 
elsewhere, and several other people declared to their great 
regret that they were unable to vote for either candidate, 
or were ill. 

As soon as the election was over, the public-houses 
were thrown open, the two Members paying for what- 
ever was required, and a scene of great disorder en- 
sued, and a riot which extended far into the night. 


So fond were Guildford people of riots, that similar 
disturbances often took place at the election of church- 
wardens, and of the Town Council. That very same 
year there were riots at the election of churchwardens 
at Holy Trinity, caveats to the House of Commons 
entered against those who were elected, new church- 
wardens could not be sworn, and the writs for all three 
parishes had to be signed by the old wardens. 

On October 5th, a disturbance took place in con- 
nection with the election for the Town Council, which 
became so serious that the clergy refused to allow the 
bells to be rung, and we are told ' that the greater 
part of the chief inhabitants, and those of the minority 
in the Corporation, withdrew from the banquet given 
to the Mayor, and to the number of eighty spent a 
happy evening at the White Hart, to manifest their 
dissension from the politics and the action of the Cor- 
poration. ' 

The writer who records this election says * that the 
party disputes were very remote from being terminated/ 
but he concludes his account with the following sage 
remark : i The scene is now at an end, and it is time 
that there should be a termination of all differences and 
contentions, that a friendly union succeed, and a laud- 
able emulation subsist among the Corporation, the 
electors and inhabitants of the town, with the purpose 
of promoting the welfare of the whole place, and the 
preservation of their ancient rights and privileges.' 

A certain amount of disturbance used to take place 
in Guildford on the occasion of the Fairs in May and 
November, but quarrels were very quickly settled in 
Fair week by the Court of Piepowder. The Guildford 
fairs were chartered, and the charter of November 23rd, 
1285, under which they were held, has in it the fol- 
lowing clause : ' And furthermore we have granted to 




the aforesaid Mayor and goodmen that they and their 
successors shall have for ever a Piepowder's Court from 
hore to hore, and all things that belongeth to the same 
Court within the town aforesaid for ever.' 

The charter goes on to give very full powers to this 
Court for collecting dues, settling quarrels and com- 
plaints, and deciding disputes. 

Now here we have a court referred to than which 
there is no older court in the world. Demosthenes 
makes it quite plain that in connection both with the 
festivals of Bacchus and the Olympic Games there 
existed temporary courts of justice to decide disputes. 
In Roman markets and in Anglo-Saxon fairs the same 
habit existed, and the necessity in all fairs of a tribunal 
which could promptly deal with the differences arising 
among the fleeting population was the same, quite 
irrespective of where the fair might chance to be held. 
Fairs were in the old days the means of distributing trade 
and often the only way by which household requisites 
could be obtained all the year round. 

The privileges of all were strictly defined and jealously 
guarded. The right to hold them was a valuable grant 
and endowment, a trade charter from the Crown — as 
real a privilege as the one recently granted to the South 
African Company — and it was full of promise of fees and 
profit. Traders attending the fairs were secured against 
competition, and special regulations covered every detail 
of the fair life. 

Internally the fair was governed by the Court or 
Piepowder, over which the Lord of the Fair or his 
steward generally presided. Mr. Henry Morley says : 
' There is no record to be found of any ordinance by 
which this court was first established in this country. 
There never has been known a fair in all Europe to 
which such a court was not by usage lawfully attached.' 


' Over all commercial complaints,' another writer states, 
1 its authority was absolute — an offender might be taken, 
a jury of similar traders empanelled on the spot, evi- 
dence heard at once, and he would be perhaps com- 
mencing his punishment all within an hour.' 

It may be well, however, to consider the curious name 
of this interesting court, which was in full force in Guild- 
ford down to 1 7 15, and in Farnham to about the same 
time. Its Latin title was Curia pedis pu/verizati, in 
Norman-French pied puldreaux — alike in each case, it 
s supposed, in reference to, or typical of, the dusty feet 
of the suitors. 

Barrington tells us that i an alien merchant was called 
in Normandy Pied puldreaux y and likewise the Farand 
man ' (or fairing man). We have in English a word 
from much the same derivative — pedlar, one who vends 
his goods where he can, travelling from place to place. 
The Court of Piepowder, then, in simpler language, is 
a Court of Pedlars. Skene, in his ' Lawes and Actes, 
1597,' P uts in n ^ s glossary: i Pede Pulverosus, or ane 
French word, Pied puldreaux^ that is, Dustie fute 9 or a 
vagabond, speciallie ane merchand or cremar (from German 
kramer, a dealer or trader), qwha lies na certaine dwelling 
place.' Again, further on, the same author states : ' Gif 
any stranger merchand travell and threw the realm 
havand no land nor residence nor dwelling within the 
sherifdome but vagand (see Latin vagare) from ane place 
to ane other qwha therefore is called pied perdreux, or 
Dusti fute.' 'Justice,' says Cornelius Walford, 'was 
done in these courts as speedily as dust can fall from the 

So much for the derivation of the name, the word 
dusty-foot, as applied to a pedlar, still, it may be noticed 
by the way, remaining in Scots use. 

Courts of Piepowder received full recognition by the 


law. 'They had,' says Walford, ' jurisdiction only in 
commercial matters. The court tried men before a jury 
of traders formed on the spot. It could entertain a case 
of slander if of goods or ware exhibited, but not of the 
trader who vended the same.' It could try a thief com- 
mitting robbery in the fair if caught within its limits. 
It could hold pleas for amounts not over 40s., and its 
judgments could be deferred and enforced at the next 

It is in the 17th year of Edward 1.(1291), that an impor- 
tant Act safeguarding its rights and clearly defining them 
was passed, and constantly down to the time of George III. 
fresh legal recognition was given to the court. None or 
the important Acts have been abrogated or repealed, and 
here we have the remarkable fact that ready to hand for 
revival, complete with all its powers intact and its duties 
defined, is a court with which our forefathers from 
Anglo-Saxon times have been perfectly familiar, and 
which exists at the present day in some few places com- 
plete in its integrity. 

On August 13th, 1 88 1, the ancient Fair was opened 
at Newcastle at the Guildhall by the Mayor and Sheriff, 
and notice given as follows : ' That a Court of Piepow- 
der will be holden during the time of the fair, that is to 
say, one in the forenoon and another in the afternoon, 
where rich and poor may have justice administered to 
them according to the law of the land and the customs 
of this town.' A similar proclamation is duly made at 
Modbury, South Devon, on May 4th, the eve of St. 
George's Day, by the Portreeve. 

One of the greatest of Fairs, and perhaps the most 
important of all, was that of St. Bartholomew's, Smith- 
field, and the Prior of St. Bartholomew's Priory was lord 
of the fair until 1445. The court was held at the gates 
of the Priory, near by what is still called Cloth Fair. 


After 1445 the City claimed a joint lordship with the 
Prior, and four Aldermen were regularly appointed lords 
or keepers of the fair and of the Court of Piepowder. 
This state of affairs continued till 1830, when the Cor- 
poration bought of Lord Kensington, the then owner of 
them, the Priory rights in the fair. The fair, how- 
ever, which from time immemorial had been opened 
by successive Lord Mayors, was dying fast. In 1830 
the shows were moved to Islington ; in 1 840 rents were 
raised and only wild beast shows retained in Smithfield ; 
and in 1850, when Lord Mayor Musgrove went to open 
the fair, behold it had vanished ! 

In the provinces, as we have already stated, both fair 
and court live. Yarmouth and Boston, Hull and Win- 
chester, still retain documents and books as to this court, 
which at St. Giles' Fair, Winchester, was a specially 
important local fixture. A Bishop of Winchester, temp. 
Edward IV., William of Waynflete, specially authorised 
the court under a grant from the King, and granted to 
it an exceptional privilege of continuance a week after 
the close of the fair. Later, Bishops Fox, Gardiner and 
Bilson referred to the court and the fair in their episco- 
pal enactments, and Trelawney and Hoadley personally 
opened the fair and court. 

In quite recent times — 1784 — Brownlow North, then 
Bishop, freely recognised the existence of the courts, 
both at Winchester and Farnham, and was proclaimed 
lord of each fair, and received by his steward the i tolls, 
fees, fynnes, redemptions, amerciaments, forfeytures, 
leavys and escheats ' collected from those who frequented 
these fairs. 

These fairs still are held, and ' Whitaker's Almanac ' 
gives a list of some 1,800 others that are regularly held 
in every countv of England and Wales. Manv of them 
represent the oldest form of English commerce, habits or 


life and custom that have steadily lived for eight or more 
centuries, and which in their regular occurrence afford 
much interest to the antiquary, and revivify past pages 
of England's history. 

One fair is, however, of immortal memory, and that 
is the so-called Vanity Fair, described in glowing lan- 
guage by John Bunyan in the * Pilgrim's Progress.' So 
faithful a picture does the dreamer give us of his own 
times that his fair has a Court of Piepowder : there is a 
lord of the fair, who correctly enough is freeholder or 
the ground on which the fair was held. Christian and 
Faithful offend against the customs of the fair and regu- 
lations of the Gild ; they are taken to the court, a jury 
is empanelled, evidence given by three witnesses, verdict 
brought in and sentence pronounced by Lord Hate-good, 
the judge, and forthwith execution made, and poor 
Faithful burned at the stake in the precincts of the 
fair. The description of Bunyan's Court of Summary 
Jurisdiction is a wonderful one, complete and exact in 
every minor detail, and gives a vivid picture of his times. 

The Court of Piepowder lasted in Guildford down to 
the beginning of the nineteenth century. In Bristol, it 
survived till 1885, in Ely it still continues, and at New- 
castle, Sturbridge, and Modbury, and at Peterborough so 
great is the demand for a rough-and-ready court, by 
which, without the troublesome routine of the County 
Court, local disputes can be settled, that the old juris- 
diction has been revived. 

Records respecting it exist in Guildford down to 
1715, but from that time till 1801, when the last men- 
tion of it occurs in the town books, it is only casually 
alluded to. The powers under the charter, still, how- 
ever, have full force, and, as they have been revived in 
Peterborough, they could be, if necessary, revived in 


The town fair was then held in the High Street, and 
the Court of Piepowder sat at one time in Baker's 
Market- house, which stood opposite Holy Trinity 
Church, and at another time just within the church 
gates. The fees, which were very small, were the 
perquisite of the Mayor, who appears to have had the 
privilege of deciding the cases, if he thought fit, without 
legal advice, on what may be called commonsense ideas. 
The great merit of the court was its ability to settle 
disputes at once, and the town books seem to show that 
the prison, or cage, as it was then called, was generally 
quite full during fair week, although those who were 
arrested during the fair were generally discharged as soon 
as the fair was over. 

The quaint privilege of ordering tolls belonged to 
Courts of Piepowder, and, as examples of this privilege, 
one egg in every thirty was taken at Berwick-on-Tweed, 
and the tongues of all oxen killed during fair week at 
Dungannon were claimed as tolls by the Mayor of the 

Chapter XIII 



/^\N the nth of March, 1834, was first founded the 
^^ Guildford Mechanics' Institution for the promotion 
of useful knowledge among the working classes. The 
meeting appointed five persons — Eliza Heathorn, James 
Ellis, John Whitfield, Robert Highgason, and John 
Cooke, of whom the last-named survived till quite recent 
days, to frame a body of rules. 

These rules were most elaborately complete in all their 
details, and were submitted to a body of members on 
April 1st, 1834. Mr. John Crosskey, linendraper, of 
High Street, predecessor to Mr. Edwin Kensett and Mr. 
John Cable, was elected president ; Mr. James Steer, trea- 
surer ; Mr. Edmund Vincent, whom many in Guildford 
well remember, was the first secretary ; and Mr. John 
Cooke librarian. The original members, besides those 
already named, included Charles Witherby, Isaac Ellis, 
William Stevens, Charles Cooke, W. Spershott, William 
Cheney, George Holt, C. Heyward, John Baverstock, 
Daniel Herd, J. Dart, W. Busby, and William Strudwick. 

Such were the names of the little body who initiated the 
work of education in Guildford. The meeting was held in 
Mr. Whitburn's auction-room, which now forms a por- 
tion of the premises at 45. High Street. Mr. Vincent 
soon resigned his post, and Mr. William Stent succeeded 

Mr. Crosskey and Mr. Busby both lent books tor a 
period of six to twelve months, and several books were 
purchased. Their names give us a clear understanding of 


the high aim that the young society had set before 
itself. We notice treatises on machinery, astronomy, 
hydrostatics, pneumatics, optics, and mechanics by all the 
leading physicists of the day in the list'; together with 
works by Martineau and Goldsmith, and such books as 
Enfield's ' Speaker,' Percy * Anecdotes,' Burns' poems, 
* Rasselas,' ' Marmion,' Shakespeare, and the Corn Law 

On October 24th, 1834, the young society, amongst 
whose committee we now find the name of William 
Pimm, determined to commence a series of lectures, and 
engaged Dr. Epps to give three lectures on phrenology at 
a cost of £5 5s. The lectures seem to have been very 
successful, and the lecturer presented to the library four 
important books on the subject, which were gratefully 

In the following month Mr. Waller Martin and Mr. 
Mark Dowlen joined the society, also Mr. Frank Apted, 
and Mr. F. Piggott was appointed librarian. At this 
stage Mr. C. B. Wall, M.P., sent £5 to the society, and 
was admitted a life member. Almost immediately after- 
wards there was evidently a difficulty in the affairs. 
Several members applied to withdraw from the society, 
and their names were erased. Mr. Wall's donation of £5 
was returned at his request, and votes of censure and of 
confidence were proposed in a somewhat disorderly 

On April 7th, 1835, was held a general meeting, and 
things appear to have now assumed a quiet and comfort- 
able aspect. Mr. Joseph Hockley was appointed presi- 
dent, and twenty-seven more members, including Mr. 
Bullen, joined the ranks. Mr. Mangles made a liberal 
donation of books in that year, and, failing accommoda- 
tion in which to bestow them, the committee instructed 
Mr. Pimm to make a bookcase at a cost not exceeding 


55s., and Mr. Boughton to paint the bookcase for cjd. ! 
In this same year there appears for the first time a balance- 
sheet of the society. The subscriptions and donations 
produced ^25 2s., the lectures £1 18s., and fines 5s. ; 
while there was expended for printing, £2 9s. ; station- 
ery, 1 os. ; candles, 7s. 2^d. ; fires, 7s. 6d. ; coal-chest, 
6s. ; lock, 4s. ; lamp for passage, 5s. cjd. ; and lecturers' 
expenses, 15s. Mr. Whitburn's rent of the room was 
now to be £5 6s. 8d. per annum. The book-case 
ordered appears in the next quarterly balance-sheet. 

In November, 1835, Mr. Crosskey made to the com- 
mittee an offer of two rooms in Stevens' Passage, at the 
back of his shop, for six guineas a year for three years, 
and promised to forego the first half-year's rent in order 
that the committee might put the premises into suitable 
repair. The offer was accepted, and the society moved 
soon after to its new premises. 

During this time a rival society had been formed, having 
its origin in political squabbling about Mr. Wall and his 
donation of £5, already referred to. 

The new society was called the Literary and Scientific 
Institution for Mechanics and others. It was formed on 
February 28th, 1835, by some forty persons who with- 
drew from the original society. Its first important meet- 
ing was held at the Angel Inn upon March 10th, and Mr. 
C. Boxall offered the accommodation of a room in the 
inn and the use of his excellent library. Mr. W. Stent, 
Mr. W. Strudwick, Mr. T. Lovett, Mr. J. and Mr. G. 
Russell, Mr. J. Mason, and Mr. Jas. Freakes were among 
the original members of this society. 

In a month it had doubled its membership. Mr. Henry 
Drummond was appointed president, Captain Jones and 
Mr. Eager vice-presidents, Mr. F. Piggott treasurer, Mr. 
P. Blake secretary, and Mr. Stent one of the librarians. 
The society now included in its membership E. Andrews, 


Geo. Sprent, W. Newland, J. Stedman, Colonel Onslow, 
R. Jarlett, J. Butler, W. O. Emlyn, and many other 
well-known local men. Sixpence per quarter per mem- 
ber was to be paid Mr. Boxall for the use of the room, 
and 2s. a week for lights and fire. Mr. Drummond 
from the earliest date took this society under his especial 
shelter — presented globes, maps, and books to it, and 
assisted it largely in fitting up the room in Angel Yard as 
a permanent home. Lectures on vocal music, chemistry, 
mesmerism, psalmody, and mineralogy were delivered, and 
the society had most promptly proved a sound financial 
and numerical success. A museum was started by Mr. 
Drummond and enriched with objects of natural history 
and geology from his own collection. Mr. Nealds was 
also amongst the early contributors to the museum, which 
took more the form of a collection of curiosities than an 
actual museum. 

On November 3rd, 1836, the committees of the two 
societies met for conference, seeking a modus vivendi with 
a view to union, but the idea fell through, and directly 
afterwards Mr. Drummond gave to the Literary and 
Scientific Institution a large collection of coins and cast^, 
fossils, shells and models, and a collection of philosophical 
instruments for the museum. In 1837 considerable alter- 
ations were made to the long room at the Angel by the 
landlord, and a new agreement for six years was signed. 
By this time a good library had been got together, the 
books being purchased at 15 per cent, discount from Mr. 
Lucy and Mr. Russell. The membership was now 259. 

In 1838 a class was formed for the study of French 
under Monsieur Prel, and the museum was thrown open 
to public inspection and visited by over 400 persons. In 
1839 (October 3rd) Mr. Drummond, as president, sug- 
gested that the institution should have a motto, and 
proposed the following one, which was at once accepted : 


' Otium sine literis mors est, et vivi hominis sepultura.' At 
this same meeting it was decided to light the reading-room 
with gas. By this time a more friendly feeling existed 
between the two societies, and arrangements were made 
for mutual attendance at the lectures that were given 
upon advantageous terms. 

In November, 1840, overtures to the Mechanics' Insti- 
tution were made and again declined. In March, 
1 841, three newspapers were, after much vigorous discus- 
sion, purchased regularly for the reading-room, greatly to 
the offence of some of the members, who considered such 
luxuries quite unnecessary. The three papers were the 
'Times,' 'Chronicle,' and 'Herald,' costing 5d. each ! 

We must now pass on to June 14th, 1843, ana * we 
then find that after many pourparlers^ and earnest efforts 
on the part of the Messrs. Russell, a union of the two 
societies was at last agreed upon, and a joint meeting of 
the committees held. Mr. Chas. Foster was in the 
chair, and it was decided to call the united institution the 
Guildford Institute. Mr. Drummond was retained as 
president, and all the other officers resigned. 

It is not our purpose to pursue the society in its new 
career beyond briefly stating a few facts. A year or two 
after its formation a scheme was set on foot for the erec- 
tion of public halls in the town. The Public Hall Com- 
pany was formed, and amongst its original shareholders 
were Mr. Henry Currie, Mr. C. B. Wall, M.P., and 
Mr. Denison, M.P. The shares were for £35 each, 
and Messrs. Currie and Wall very generously presented 
their six shares to the new Institute. The Institute took 
up its abode in the recently-erected premises, and upon 
the death of Mr. Denison became possessed of a further 
share in the property. 

Lord Londesborough presented to the Institute the 
four shares that had been owned by his uncle. The gift 


occasioned, so Mr. Bullen tells us, a lively squabble, as it 
was claimed by the Choral Society, under Mr. Lemare. 
Even when transferred by the donor to the Institute, the 
scrip could not be found, and the directors insisted upon 
a bond of indemnity, which was prepared by Mr. Capron 
at the cost of the Institute. Some years afterwards the 
original scrip was found in the issue book at Mr. Capron's 
office, never having been delivered to Mr. Denison, and 
with great generosity Mr. Capron at once returned to the 
Institute the costs paid him for preparing the deed. 

Our old friend Mr. Bullen's eye sparkled as he 
remembered another story about the society — how he 
himself found the missing trust-deed of the Institute in 
the very house in which he now lives, but which then 
was tenanted by Mr. Piggott, the actuary. Mr. Piggott 
had strongly declared that he had not got the deed, 
but in an old box, amongst some other papers, Mr. 
Bullen unexpectedly came across it, to his great delight. 
When the County and Borough Halls Company was 
formed, the £350 held by the Institute was transferred 
to scrip of the new company, and various gifts were 
made, increasing it. Mr. Evelyn gave two shares, Mr. 
Currie five, Mr. S. Gurney five, a tradesman two, Mr. 
Guildford Onslow five, another friend two, and the 
Institute bought five, making their present holding up 
to ninety-five shares. 

Early in the sixties it was felt that the subscription or 
the Guildford Institute was too high for working men, 
and so once more a rival institution sprang into being. 
Once again Mr. Bullen was to the fore, and, as far as 
we can understand, he, Mr. May Colebrook, and a Mr. 
Blindell, now of Brighton, were the three original foun- 
ders of the Working Men's Institution, which achieved 
so remarkable a success and become so deservedly 


We must mention one other very generous supporter 
of the Guildford Institute before we close. We allude 
to Mr. Edward Jekyll, then of Bramley House. He it 
was, next after Mr. Drummond, who acted as generous 
patron to the society. He furnished the reading-room 
at his own cost, gave pictures, books, and money with 
a lavish hand, and was a munificent helper of the work. 
In Sir William Bovill, the Working Men's Institution 
had a similar friend, and shares in the County and 
Borough Halls Company were left by him in trust for 
the society. Mr. Drummond's great interest and kindly 
aid were recognised after his death by an invitation to 
his grandson, Earl Percy, to assume the presidency of 
the society. This invitation was accepted, and Earl 
Percy, now Duke of Northumberland, became president, 
taking up in his person the good work initiated and 
warmly supported by Mr. Drummond. 

The two societies continued to have a separate 
existence down to 1892, and then once more they 

This time a new building in Ward Street was pur- 
chased and this important local Society greatly increased 
in numbers by the amalgamation, started a fresh lease of 
life under entirely new circumstances, and, judging from 
the advance in numbers that has been made, it bids fair 
to have a long and prosperous career before it. 

Chapter XIV 


A SIGHT of three old copies of Russell's Almanack 
•^■^for Guildford, dated respectively 1835, 1836 and 
1837, and the perusal of the quaint old books, set one 
thinking of the contrast between Guildford then and 
Guildford now. The very title page, having the words 
i Published at the Library, Guildford,' tells us of the 
state of the bookselling trade in the town, and points out 
that but one shop, that kept by Messrs. G. W. and 
J. Russell, could claim to be considered the Librarv. 
The almanack which follows gives us several interesting 

On February 1st, 1808, we learn the Stoke Prosecut- 
ing Society was established, which offered rewards of £10 
against murder, burglary, robbery and arson ; ^5 against 
stealing, shop-lifting and receiving stolen goods ; and one 
guinea for smaller crimes. We suppose this society 
carried out work which now falls to the share of Govern- 
ment and the police. 

On February 28th, 1835, we are told, was estab- 
lished the society with the grand title of 4 The Guildford 
Literary and Scientific Institute for Mechanics and 
Others,' mentioned in the previous chapter. In 1837 
it met in a spacious reading-room in Angel Gate 
every evening except Sundays. It possessed a library of 
600 volumes, a pair of globes, a curious and beautiful glass 
celestial sphere enclosing a terrestrial globe, an assortment 
of maps on spring-rollers, a planisphere and some atlases, 
and in ten days numbered 10 1 members. It also boasted 
of some botanical specimens of grasses, a magnificent 


case of 20 specimens of American ornithology, and 
a miscellaneous collection of minerals and fossils not 
yet arranged, a series of 3,000 coins and casts, and a 
quantity of scientific apparatus. Mr. Piggott, the treas- 
urer, in 1837, appealed for funds, and the almanack 
strongly supported his appeal. 

Further on the same book records the foundation, 
on April 1st, 1834, of the Mechanics' Institution, meet- 
ing in Stevens' Gate, at the back of Mr. Crosskey's 
premises, linendraper in High Street, now Cable's 

On May 3rd, 1824, so savs tne almanack, Guildford 
was first lighted by gas. 

On June 2nd, 1759, the Guildford Watch and Light 
Act passed. On June 24th, 1763, Russell's printing office 
was first established. On June 9th, 1216, the almanack 
refers to the capture of Guildford Castle by Louis the 
Dauphin. Mr. Russell mentions that on June 7th, 
1836, the foundation-stone of St. Nicholas' was laid by 
the Dean of Salisbury, the Very Rev. Hugh Nicolas 
Pearson, D.D., at that time patron and incumbent. The 
building was estimated to cost ^2,886, and the organ 
£250 extra, and towards this amount ^2,650 was in 

On June 26th we read of a meeting of trustees of the 
Bluecoat School, which now exists only in the memories 
of the past. The master's name was Mr. Abraham 
Thayres, and there were twenty boys educated in the 
tower of Trinity Church. The commencement of the 
system of district visiting in Guildford is alluded to in 
the almanack. It records the establishment on August 
24th, 1834, of the S. Nicholas District Visiting Society, 
under the presidentship of the Dean of Salisbury, which 
was formed to carry on the work of visiting, helping, 
advising, and nourishing the poor on very similar lines to 


the work which now forms an integral part of parochial 
activity all over the kingdom. 

In September we find the mention that on September 
29th, 1836, a dinner was given to the Rev. H. Ayling, 
master of the Grammar School, by some of his late 
pupils, when he was presented with two superb vases suit- 
ably inscribed, and it is announced that at the particular 
request of the Mayor and Corporation Mr. Ayling con- 
sented to remain till Midsummer, 1837, to give them time 
to appoint his successor. On the same day — September 
29th, 1836 — the first exhibition of dahlias took place in 
Guildford. It was held at the White Lion, and very 
poorly attended. Twelve prizes were given, and after 
the show the Guildford Horticultural and Floricultural 
Society was established, Mr. T. Dickenson being first 
secretary and treasurer. 

The calendar records in the following order several 
other dates of interest in local history, amongst them being : 

Jan. 7th. Charter granted to Guildford, 1256-57. 

Jan. 2 1 st. Charter granted by Edward III., including 
fair, 1340-41. 

April 1st. Wey and Arun Act passed, 18 13. 

April 5th. First stone of Guildford Hospital laid, 

April 24th. Tower of Trinity Church fell, 1740. 

June 20th. Guildford Hospital Charter granted, 1621. 

July 2 1st. Hermann, first Prior of the Friary, died, 


Aug. 22nd. First stone of Trinity Church laid, 


Aug. 30th. Commission granted to Guildford justices 
by James I., 1602. 

Sept. 5th. Archbishop Abbott died, 1633. 

Sept. 7th. Further charter granted to Guildford, 




Sept. 8th. Poyle Manor Estate granted to the poor, 


Oct. 13th. Butter, Eggs, and Poultry Market estab- 
lished, 1800. 

Oct. 29th. Archbishop Abbott born, 1562. 
Nov. 4th. Charter for St. Catherine Hill Fair first 
granted, 1308, by Edward II. at the request of Richard de 
Wauncy, Parson of St. Nicholas. 

Nov. 1 6th. Andrew le Constable and John Nicole 
first members returned for Guildford, 1272. 

Nov. 28th. Guildford Charter renewed and confirmed, 
1423, by Henry VI. 

The information as to conveyance is of importance, 
and it is difficult to believe that so great a change in 
methods of travelling has come over the scene in so short 
a space of time. We find carefully noted a list of errand 
men and women, some going on foot and others with 
carts to the neighbouring villages, and amongst them one 
who remains to the present day — almost the last., link 
between the old times and trie present — Maits, the 
errand-man to Bramley, going daily from the Star. Beside 
this list there is a larger one of carriers having vans, 
eighteen of whom went from the Star, which was clearly 
then, as now, the local rendezvous for country carriers. 
Several started from a place described as ' Neate's, Alex 
Row,' and we are uncertain what street is in this way 
alluded to. 

We then find a table showing the movements of the 
nineteen coaches that passed through the town — the 
Union, Times, Accommodation, Diligent, Royal Mail, 
Rocket, Independent, Regulator, Tantivy, Royal Blue, 
Night Rocket, Star, Brunswick, and Red Rover, passing 
through Guildford between Southampton, Portsmouth, 
and London ; the Duke of Richmond and Independent, 
passing between London and Chichester j the Royal 

c Z 
z ? 

W 3 

U L 

o ? 

— ^ 
U .2 

** -^ 





Sussex, from Littlehampton to London ; the Sovereign, 
from Brighton to Windsor ; and the Hero, from Brighton 
to Oxford. 

Then we get the goods-waggons to London — Tur- 
ner's, Shelley's, Mason's, Balchin's, and Southon's — 
taking goods and passengers, leaving Guildford between 
two and three in the afternoon, reaching London 
about six the next morning, and pulling up in the Old 
Bailey, Newgate Street, or the Borough. Finally, there 
was conveyance by water, the names of several barge- 
owners being given : Messrs. Wilkins, Messrs. Russell, 
Messrs. Seward, Messrs. Spencer, Jupp, and Co., and 
Mr. W. Mills ; and in this way our ancestors travelled. 
That they were not quite satisfied, however, appears from 
the remark that a meeting was held May 21st, 1836, in 
the Council Chamber, J. Smallpeice, Esq., in the chair, 
to consider the expediency of a railroad, to consider 
Stephenson's method, and to form a committee to make 
inquiries and report further. 

The meetings of the Guardians and overseers were held 
at Archbishop Abbot's Hospital, and in looking down the 
list the names of Mr. Stedman, Mr. Butler and Mr. 
Sells as Medical Officers are interesting as reminders of 
the hereditary character of the medical profession in our 
local families. 

As an evidence of the immense progress in Church 
matters and ritual which has been made during the past 
fifty years, we have but to read the following note, which 
appears at the foot of the list of Sunday lessons for the year 
1837 : 'The Holy Sacrament will for the future be 
monthly alternately at St. Mary's and the Holy Trinity, 
also at St. Nicholas and Stoke on the first Sunday in the 
month alternately.' 

The regulations as to the market occupy a page, and 
they are very stringent and precise. The rule as to 



a penalty of ios. for hawking any edible commodities at 
any dwelling or shop on a market day before 12 o'clock 
appears to have been strictly enforced, and a similar 
penalty was levied for pitching or standing any booth or 
stall in any of the lanes or streets within the town liberty. 
We commend these rules to our Corporation. 

Marked prominence is given to the dates upon which 
the local and neighbouring fairs were held, and it is easy 
to see how important these county fixtures were in their 
day. So much trading was then deferred to Fair Day, 
and so high a value was attached to an attendance at these 

Near the end of the almanack we find abstracts of some 
important Acts of Parliament that had lately been passed 
— the Act for the Sale and Assize of Bread, July 28th, 
1836, with important clauses against adulteration, Sunday 
trading and the like ; the Tithe Commutation Act of 
August 13th, 1836, with its great attendant changes in 
the method of paying tithes ; the Act for Registration of 
Births, Deaths, and Marriages, August 17th, 1836, far- 
reaching and most important in its character and results ; 
the Parochial Assessment Act and the Stamp Act. 

The outside wrapper tells us that Messrs. Russell not i 
only sold books, but plate and jewellery, cutlery and 
optical instruments, fishing-tackle and brushes and combs, 
and, to judge by the three pages of advertisements, did a 
thriving trade in patent medicines. 

Having started on a review of the past it may be 
interesting to refer to a few other changes in the town. 

The old Mail Office, the original Post Office of the 
town, was at the top of Swan Lane, in premises now 
occupied by Messrs. Salsbury, and after those premises 
were altered into shops it migrated to other sites in 
High Street before it settled down in North Street. 

In this connection the record of the first telegram sent 


From a water colour by Prosser. 



from Guildford (November 16th, 1859), now m tne 
B.r Desire, and under the Patronage 






Sifter of ihe j^Tirai Tragedian 


author's possession, 
may be of some 

Amongst other 
local curiosities in 
the author's col- 
lection is the great 



M ill perforin on Ihu necninD, bctni ihe NirIu l»ui T liree of her Eng^rmcnf 
TIIKATilK f»"l MIsIH-'OHtt. 

Oi» IKIDAY EVKNING, JULY 7th, 1843, 

Will be ,,rrvtiM RasWUI K«»»i i,, .rr. hall) t.pulv PL, of 



Dai* «f lanUSil Mr Til LENFOR Q Oj.lllrr Mr CH.API !*■»■ 

00. .f cinolSr. WrCULENFOR 

».r •.,*«.• Ur* - NrC. SMYTHSON 

Ha»4> •«*> Mr*. BOCIURGHMI 

OjUllne Mr CH.API IV« 

Sir Co»M or IMmC-U Mr THOMAS 

Pniu. Mr Bt'RCBELL 

Ftlevurr ! Hr LLOYD 

BARNETT f:H,f'«;,iEj,(t...l..«.!S«n tl»i ELLE!> CHAI'UN 


7>» Eaprrr* 

Countess of Epuensiehi MlssHaereody 

Ben!,,, [ihe CnnMr,'! m,*); " Mrt THOMAS 


THE UAH'CE, from " Cherry and Fair Star," 

BT Mill TIlU.'HAgtH* AS l» Bigg LIDIt. 

Mr* «hKli. il>- fcr.r.i. «.« Ian Dtuai« Pm,, tilled 

Kill, or Cure. 




Mr Ml 

Mr LL01D 

Mn 0-o.n 


.Au'iiiM Mr WEST 



Tl» .Kd.- 10 .ilh ■ I...T11. Fire., ir. Or.- A n. nl Ud 



Mr Sublin. ■• erc.i.roi Dr. oiler. t»d aiueJud » TWtriol, Mr THOMAS 

Cli.rU. F«rre,iee, • •.«», Mwdn.l Mr Ul'ROIELL ! 

Mr Fr.ll>. • Tr.elire .f DruulK Ehulve* Mr III lU'HM I. " 

M..,< J«».,»- The.,*.. Die Africa Rwriu. M Mr Stilbbon Mr C. SMYTHSON 

♦'..Siebr-.r*. >,T«l I, l>r>lnr,U, i«d rJi Ihmff, U>ere U ftl. apperlainioc Mr,THOMAR 

J ..!„ .„ Di-elil". FT"".; for ih. S^i M.» fl (FN CHAPLIN 

Lower lloxca <a. Od. Caccond Price It. Oil. 

I Pimp lloxe. »a. HMond Price l». a> 

, Pit I. -Gallery Oil. <»'<• Mecood Price to Pli or Gallery) 

Ji^*„ ro bo a,«rri ,1 ,Neren. Peef.rm»iKr hi cwnrn«r» tl Htlf-piak Second Prie. ,1 • Quarter to Nine ••elm.- 
1 %.' TICKETS Kir b,h.d»< Mr BARNETT. •< Mr. Willi.,. 94, Mich Stmi; irdu KlSsElLV 
— — •»» tIBHARV, »••« Pl«" ** '»• B»»» **} "• '•^■« , • 

s>C (ftlSfiLLLS. PRnrtRSlWHVriKO 


leathern collar 
the bull 

which was at one 
time so favourite an 
amusement in the 
place. The chain 
used for the bear is 
also still in exist- 
ence, and, consider- 
ing the number of 
references in local 
records to the bait- 
ing of bears, it may 
be curious to sur- 
mise where the 
bears came from 
and how and by 
whom they were 
brought to Eng- 

The Theatre in 
Market Street will 
be remembered by 
many old towns- 
folk, and in it 
some of the 
greatest actors have 



appeared from time to time. Mrs. Jordan, Miss Foote, 
Master Betty, Jack Banister, Dowton, Edmund Kean, 
Mrs. Orger, Mrs. Nesbit, Meadows and Yates may be 
mentioned as some of them, and one of the old Theatre 
bills has the famous name of Macready upon it. 

Close to it stood the Cock Pit which disappeared in 
1840. It was part of the great inn of the town, the 
famous Red Lion, where Samuel Pepys stayed so often, 
and where, in 1662, he had the * best asparagus he had 
ever eaten in his life.' 

This great inn extended almost the whole length of 
Market Street and was a very important posting house. 
During the races it boasted that 400 horses could be 
stabled within its precincts. 

•The Cod^' fT^J^f^fet' ^JAJhcC Mt +(. JeTQb ftmbe 

The other important inn was the White Hart, men- 
tioned in Guildford records as early as 1550. At that 
time it was owned by members of a local family (con- 
nected with the family of the author of this book) known 
as the Derricke-Gilbertsons and whose name between 



1550 and 1680 appears more than 70 times in the register 
of Holy Trinity Parish. This family appears now to be 
extinct, but there are representatives still in Guildford of 
many other old families who have been connected with 
the town for 400 years, and whose names occur in the 
town books and the parish registers year after year. 

The Race Course can still be marked out on Merrow 


JULY 12tb, 1866, 


The following Horses are entered— 

1st THE WORPLESDON, purple body, orange 
sleeves and cap. This horse is well known, has been on 
the turf these nine years, and is at the present time in 
excellent condition, and eager for the race; he is quite 
capable of carrying any weight Her Majesty may be 
pleased to put on him. 

2nd THE UPLANDS CHIEF, freely entered, but 
soon bolted; he is a dark, and by no means a good tem- 
pered horse, and is much inclined to kick, he has already 
run one race, and was thrown ; he is now thought to be 
badly treated by his late backers, and "will be turned out 
on the Downs till next season. 

3rd THE OLD SEALE tfORSE, blue body and 
Hack cap, who has run twice hefore, but was thrown 
by Barclay and Percival, is now again under training 
of the men about town; he will be well jockeyed, 0,0 
doubt, by. his pretended friends, but can't win. 

Latest Setting on the Course — 5 to 1 *>n Worplesdon. 


From the Swan, 1718, 

William Gibfon, at' the Corner Houfe m 
Stoke-Lane, next to the Ram in Guilford, 

SElIeth all Sorts of Bibles, Teftaments, Com- 
mon-Prayers, Pfalters, Primmers, Horn- 
Book?, Arithmetick-Books, Latin Books, Spel- 
ling- Books; Sol fa-Books, . School-Books, Divi- 
nity, Hufbandry, Phyfick, Navigation, Cooke- 
ry, Poetry, Farriering, Hiftory, Ballads, Shop- 
Books, and Pocket-Books, and all other Sorts 
of Books. If any Gentleman or others want a 
Book that he has not, he will procure it them 
as Cheap as at London. 

Ltkewire* Paper, Pens, Ink, Ink- Powder, 
Slates, Slate -Books, Spectacles, Thimbles, 
Combs-of all Sorts, Almanacks, Tobacco- Boxes, 
Tobacco-Tongs, Looking-'Glafles, Buckles, But- 
tons, Knives, Sciflars, Ink-Horns, Needles, Pins, 
Sealin&rWax, Wafers, JWj-Harps* Maps, Pic- 
tures, Gartering, Laces, Filleting, Tape, and 

Any Chapman or others may befurnifh'd with 
all thofe Sorts above-nsm'd, Wholefal.e or Re- 
tail, and fevcral other Sorts, good Pennyworths. 

He Jikewife felleth all Sorts of Linnen-Cloth, 
Coarfe 2nd Fine $ Silk for Hoods and Scarfs, 
Muflin, Lace, Handkerchiefs, Callico, Neck- 
cloths, Stockings for Men, Women, and Chil- 
dren, and Linnen ready made. He buyeth old 
Silver and Silver- Lace. Where you may have 
old Books new bound at reafonable Rates. 

ftote, He keeps a Standing every Market-Day 
at the Sign of the Red-lyon. 



Downs, but the races are no longer held. One of the 
latest cards, that issued in 1866, is presented on page 216. 

The old Coach Office was in North Street and has 
long since vanished, as also the original Poor House, 
which was almost facing it, close to where a portion of 
Abbot's School now stands. 

Of the trade of the town a curious handbill of 1 7 1 8, 
issued by a man at the Ram Corner, gives us a vivid 
picture. The variety of his stock is sufficiently enter- 

A well-known trader was one Matthew Wise, who 
lived next the Star in Quarry Street, and whose ginger- 
bread was noted all over the county. His quaint trade 
card appears below. 



TD E G S Leave to acquaint the Public, that he con- 
tinues to fell at his Original Shop, near the Star- 
Corner, GUILDFORD, Surrey, all forts JJJ 
of Gingerbread, Bifcuits, Toys, Confectionary, 3kg 
Oranges, Lemons, Nuts, &c. and that he will ft 
punctually execute all Orders, on Terms equal, if iL 
not cheaper than the Trade in London. ^ 

Guildford : Printed by J. Ruifell. 


One of the illustrations depicts the beautiful house 
erected by Mr. Child, afterwards inhabited by Mr. 
Martyr, and now occupied by Mr. Alfred Bull. Here 


„ „ 

f&$ m m 


|| q til *-1 


' .' t » * W 



» • * 

- ;| j^H^f 1 


(now chapel street), i 839. 

From a ivater colour drawing. 


the iron-work to the windows, the fine elaborate 
ceilings, the beautiful windows and the quaint old 
garden house remain to prove what a fine merchant's 
house this was, and how stately were many of the 
domestic buildings of the town. 

The Jolly Butcher Inn is a typical old dwelling, and 
the ancient view of the High Street, in the days when 
signs appeared outside every house, illustrates the charm 
that the High Street must have possessed in 'the olden 

The old engravings tell us of the appearance of 
the place and of its chief buildings, and the Ground Plan 
traces for us the borough of 1739, but all that speaks of 
the past is fast fading away and the last fifty years have 
made sad changes in the beauty of the quaint old town. 

Guildford is increasing in size and importance day 
by day, but certainly not in beauty, and it behoves 
those who are interested in its early history and love 
its ancient buildings and possessions to cherish all that 
remains, or the charm of the fascinating old place will 
soon pass altogether away. 

Chapter XV 


TN addition to the house of the Dominican Friars, 
and to the establishment which it is believed was in 
the hands of the Carmelites in the High Street, there 
was a third monastic house in Guildford, which be- 
longed to the Crutched or Crossed Friars, a branch 
house of the Trinitarian Order. 

These Crutched Friars are believed to have taken 
their origin in the Low Countries, although some 
authors state that they were instituted by Gerard, 
Prior of Santa Maria di Morella at Bologna. They 
were protected by Pope Alexander III. in 1169, and 
received from him their rule. They came to England 
for the first time in 1244, appearing before the Bishop 
of Rochester, and asking for leave to settle in this 
country. Their first important establishment was at 
Reigate, founded in 1245, and their second in London 
in 1249, an d tne name of this house has given the 
name of Crutched Friars to a street in the City of 
London. They had a house at Oxford, and about 
seven other houses in the country. 

Their residence at Guildford was a very small one, 
and it is probable that it only lasted for a short time, as 
hardly anything whatever can be told respecting their 
house. It was situated in the angle formed by the roads 
leading to Kingston and Epsom, and it was dedicated to 
St. Thomas. The name of the house appears in the 
list of monastic establishments destroyed at the Reforma- 
tion, and their Friary at that time was converted into a 
hospital for cripples. The Master of the hospital had 



Front a water colour drawing by Prosser t 1789. 


the title of Prior, and this title appears to have continued 
down to the early part of the eighteenth century, as there 
are records in connection with the Manor of Stoke, and 
at a later time in connection with the Poyle Charity, of 
payments of a quit rent of sixpence from the Prior 
of St. Thomas's Hospital to the Lord of the Manor of 

Presentations to the hospital seem to have been vested 
alternately in the Mayor of the town of Guildford and 
the administrative body of the county, acting through 
Quarter Sessions, but the last presentation by the county 
was made on July 12th, 1698. Since that time, the 
right of presentation has been vested in the magistrates 
of Guildford. 

It seems probable that the administration of Nor- 
brige's Chantry, already alluded to in connection with 
Holy Trinity Church, was vested in the Order of 
the Crutched Friars. It is certain that at the Hospital 
of St. Thomas resided the chantry priests for the Lady 
Chapel in that church, and it was in connection with 
this Chapel that Henry and Alice Norbrige founded 
the chantry. 

In the early part of the seventeenth century, the proper- 
ty came into the possession of the Poyle Charity, hav ing 
been purchased from the money bequeathed to Guildford 
by Henry Smith, an alderman of London, representing 
the ward of Farringdon Without. The charity acquired 
its name from the Manor of Poyle which it purchased, 
and at that time the ancient hospital had been converted 
into a manor house, where the courts of the Manor of 
Poyle were regularly held. A part of the old chapel, 
however, still remained in existence, and, previous to 
its destruction, some sketches of it were made by John 
Russell, R.A. In the early part of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, these ruins were, however, removed, and a house 


built upon the site, which was first occupied by a Mr. 
Finnimore. This house was enlarged in about 1850, 
and, during the occupancy of the living of Holy Trinity 
by the Rev. A. S. Valpy, it was used as his residence. 


3 * 

3 ;^ 

H _ ^ : 
5 2 § 

C< ». 
- *Q 

— Ik 

M 5 

w * -9 

— o 

Ld S ^ 

- ' 




Chapter XVI 


nPHERE are very few towns in England which possess 
A the privilege of having a sword carried before the 
Mayor. During the fourteenth century only seven cities 
and towns received it. Lincoln, York, and Chester re- 
ceived their swords as gifts from the King ; Newcastle 
acquired its privilege by special charter in 1 39 1 . Lon- 
don, the first city to which the privilege was granted, has 
held a sword almost from time immemorial, whilst as to 
the use at Coventry and Bristol no evidence is forth- 
coming, although the Bristol sword is believed to have 
been in use since 1373. 

During the fifteenth century the privilege was given by 
charter to Norwich, Kingston-on-Hull, and Gloucester, 
and swords were given to Exeter, Leicester, and Here- 
ford. Henry VII. gave a sword to Chester in 1506, 
Henry VIII. appointed a swordbearer for Carmarthen in 
1546, and Queen Elizabeth gave the privilege to Thet- 
ford in 1573. The otner places which are empowered 
to use a sword of state are Canterbury, Worcester, Ken- 
dal, Carlisle, Shrewsbury, Wigan, Yarmouth, Liverpool, 
and Salisbury, while swords have been presented by private 
individuals to Appleby, Hertford, Lichfield, and Bury St. 

There seems to be every probability that Guildford 
was one of the towns having a similar privilege, but 
it is not at all clear how the privilege was acquired. It 
possibly came by one of the charters, but the earliest 
charters of the town are not in existence, having been 
lost in the Wat Tyler Insurrection. With the exception 


of one of them, however — that of Richard II. — they are 
set forth and recited in the charter of Henry VII., 1489, 
but this charter does not refer to a sword. 

Probably the privilege was acquired from James II., 
when the King granted to the Mayor and Aldermen the 
right of using the royal colour, scarlet, for their gowns. 
On more than one occasion this right, which was con- 
sidered a sovereign privilege, seldom granted, carried with 
it the further unexpressed right to bear a sword before the 
Mayor. In almost every instance in England where the 
royal colour was allowed in the gowns, the royal privi- 
lege of a state sword was at once adopted, and the two 
rights seem to have been always considered together. 

4 The obscurity,' Mr. Hope tells us in his work on 
Corporation plate, ' that surrounds the extension of the 
privilege of a sword of state to a city or town is not 
lightened by an examination of the royal charters grant- 
ing it.' In many of these charters the sword is only just 
alluded to, as though its use were perfectly well known. 
At present the author has only been able to find five 
references to the use of a state sword amongst the Guild- 
ford records. 

One is a payment in 1687, the year after James II. 
granted the charter, * to Mr. Sword-bearer of 4s. 2d.' 
Another occurs in the next year when the l Maior and Mr. 
Sword-bearer with the Serjeant-at-Mace ' take part in a 
ceremonial visit to Holy Trinity Church. Another comes 
three years later, and merely states, ' Repairs to ye Great 
Sword, 7s. 3d.' A fourth is a reference to the election of 
a sword-bearer, and the fifth is a reference to the ' mum- 
mers ' in the town, in which it is stated there was 
elected a mock mayor, with his sword-bearer and mace- 

There is also an entry in the town Black Book, under 
date 28th of Henry VII., as to the election of a sword- 



■J-. - 


bearer, and another one in the same year, speaking of the 
fine to be levied on a young man refusing to be a sword- 
bearer. It is quite possible that these two early entries 
refer to the armed men which the town had to supply, 
rather than to any ornamental officer in attendance on 
the Bailiff or Mayor, but the other three entries would 
certainly appear to relate to the bearing of a sword before 
the Mayor. 

This question would not have had any very special 
interest but for the existence in the town for many years 
of an old processional sword/which appears to the author 
to have at one time belonged to the Corporation, and to 
have been used as a state sword borne before the Mayor. 

This sword now belongs to the Guildford Institute, and 
was for some years suspended in the library. It was 
given to the old Institute by John Ryde Cooke, who 
was Mayor in 1849-50 and 1854-55, and the gift was 
recorded in the minute-book of the Institute as that of 
* The Old Sword, given to the Museum.' 

The Institute was founded in 1834, and Mr. John 
Cooke, its first librarian, was one of the five men who 
founded it. From its earliest days it appears to have 
collected things belonging to the town, but when Mr. 
Drummond became its president in 1835 a museum was 
at once started and a room in Angel Yard fitted up as its 
permanent home. Mr. Drummond enriched this museum 
with objects of natural history and geology ; Mr. John 
Nealds also contributed to it, and several of the members 
made gifts. 

* The Old Sword ' was one of the earliest. How it got 
fnto Mr. Cooke's possession cannot now be known, but 
he appears to have considered it worthy of the acceptance 
of the Institution and of a place in its museum. 

Mr. Cooke first entered the Council in 1847, becoming 
Mayor two years afterwards, but it seems probable that 



the sword had been disused for a very long time 

It is hardly likely that Mr. Cooke would have pur- 
chased or have acquired an enormous processional sword 
to give to the Institute museum, or that such a sword 
should have been labelled, as this one was, when it was 
in the old museum of the Institute, i The Old Sword,' 
whereas it is exceedingly likely that, if the carrying of the 
sword had been disused for some years, he might think 
that this disused weapon would be of interest to the 
newly-founded Institute. Why, if it was Corporation 
property, he gave it away, is not clear : but there was much 
carelessness at that time with regard to things of interest, 
such as the Corporation records and original copper-plates 
of engravings. 

A curious piece of indirect evidence came to light as 
to Mr. Cooke's action. 

He was, it appears, the Mayor of the town who was 
present at the first important gathering of provincial 
Mayors after the framing of the Municipal Corporations 
Act. The gathering took place at York, and before 
each Mayor was carried a banner with the arms of his 
town and this banner was suspended over his seat at the 
luncheon. Mr. Cooke provided at his own cost the 
silken banner, but so little interest did he take in it as a 
piece of municipal insignia that on his return from York 
he did not place it in the Town Hall or even report his 
presence at York to his Council. 

Some years afterwards he gave this banner to his 
friend John Nealds, a local antiquary, who, recognising 
its importance to the Corporation, presented it to the 
town, and in the Council Chamber it now hangs. 

It seems to be very probable that his conduct with 
regard to the Town Sword was on a par with that as to 
the banner. He acted in accordance with the spirit of 


the age in which he lived, when apparently little value 
was set upon archaeological objects not possessing intrinsic 
value. He recognised both banner and sword as curiosi- 
ties, gave one to an old friend who loved such things, and 
the other, as it was big, cumbersome and heavy, to a 
local museum, but it never occurred to him to place 
either of them in the custody of the Corporation to 
which each really belonged, inasmuch as he did not con- 
sider (perhaps rightly) that his Council would trouble to 
possess or care for them. 

It may be counted to his credit that he gave the 
Sword to a local museum rather than to a private indi- 
vidual who might have taken it out of the town, but 
we are of opinion that the cumbersome size of this huge 
weapon had somewhat to do with its possession by the 

In the present year the Sword attracted some attention 
and the Committee of the Institute to whom it belongs 
obtained various opinions about it, submitting it first to 
some noted sword makers and then, at the author's sug- 
gestion, to the Keeper of the King's Armoury (Guy 
Francis Laking, Esq, F.S.A.). 

This well-known expert pronounced it to be ' a very 
fine example of its kind, probably German, and dating 
within the last quarter of the sixteenth century.' He 
drew attention to the fact that it had l the additional 
interest of being in an untouched condition, having its 
original grip and leather on the recasso,' and he concluded 
as follows : c it is really a treasure, and should be care- 
fully preserved, and I may add that I have never seen a 
finer specimen.' 

Attention has also been drawn to the fact that very 
many of the large Zweihander, or two-handled swords, 
such as this one is, were obtained and used as state 
swords long after they had gone out of fashion as fighting 


weapons. Most of the works on arms and armour allude 
to this fact, Boutell especially using it as the reason 
why so few of these great swords are to be found in 
collectionsof armour and many belongtocivic Corporations. 

No less than six two-handled swords in the great 
Armoury at Madrid were once in use as state swords, 
and such imposing weapons were in great request all 
over Europe for ceremonial purposes. 

The Guildford Sword, a two-handled sword of 
huge size and great weight, is five feet ten inches long, 
the blade measuring four feet three inches. The hilt is 
covered with dark green velvet, the quillons and guards, 
unusually large, are handsomely curved, and there is a 
crossguard just above the blade. 

On either side a panel on the guard is beautifully 
damascened with silver, while, as Mr. Laking remarked, 
the original leather of the recasso is in situ. 

The maker's mark appears to be three stars and an 
initial. The blade is in splendid condition and a superb 
piece of forging. 

It seems probable that this sword was obtained by the 
Corporation as soon as the charter of James II. was 
received, and that for a while it was carried before the 
Mayor. It may, of course, have been in use long before 
that time as it belongs to the sixteenth century, or an 
old sword may have been purchased or given to the Cor- 
poration when required, but as to all that history at 
present is silent. A very careful search of town books 
might reveal further information respecting its use, but 
there are many instances on record of the adoption of 
such a use on the occasion of any special privilege being 
granted to the town by the King. 

It is always understood that a sword, when carried, is 
borne with the point erect in the presence of everyone 
save the King and the heirs, and it is a sign of the 


dignity and power of the chief magistrate. As a rule, 
it is borne sheathed, and there are signs that a leather 
sheath has been used on the Institute sword. 

The right of bearing it includes the right to carry 
it into church before the Mayor, and at Chester and 
Coventry this right, challenged by the ecclesiastical 
authorities, was decided in favour of the Mayor and 
citizens. In one case only, that of Shrewsbury, there 
is an express stipulation in the charter that the sword 
is not to be borne erect in church. 

The actual number of swords of state in England is 
only forty-six, and they are divided amongst thirty-one 
cities and towns. London and Bristol each possess four 
swords, Lincoln has three, and there are two ?.t York, 
Hull, Newcastle, Exeter, Hereford, Gloucester and 
Worcester. The other towns which possess the right 
of a sword-bearer have each of them only one sword. 

The privilege is an important one, and belongs to so 
few towns, that it would be well for it to be revived in 

The Corporation of the town have come to the con- 
clusion that the Institute Sword once formed part of its 
insignia of office, and have made application to the Insti- 
tute for its recovery. It is much to be hoped that the 
Institute will see its way to accede to this very reason- 
able request. 

Chapter XVII 


T^AR back in early times, at as remote a period as 
1256, Guildford had a daughter-town in the affili- 
ation to her of the Saxon town of Kingston-upon- 
Thames. The charters at Kingston, granted to the 
citizens by the King at the request of the Gild-Mer- 
chant, were framed on the lines of the Guildford charters, 
and conferred similar privileges ; and, as Guildford trien- 
nially in those days acknowledged Winchester in its 
corporate capacity as her mother-town, so Kingston in 
her turn, but annually, paid similar fealty and acknow- 
ledgment to Guildford. 

History repeated itself, and even now Guildford has a 
daughter-town named after her, copying her life and 
habits, rejoicing in her connection with the mother- 
country and the mother-town, and in the New England 
over the seas Guilford, Conn., sustains the old traditions, 
and in the land of freedom reaches out one hand of 
fellowship to the old town and country, and with the 
other points onward to greater progress and advancement 
in all that civilises and improves the English-speaking 

Of this town a few words may be of interest to all 
Guild fordians. In 1639 a party of some forty traders, 
with their families, left England for America. They tell 
us that they were ' Congregationalists and Puritans, driven 
from their native country because of their religion, and 
that they wished to enjoy their sentiments unmolested 
by those who had none in common with them, and 


who endeavoured to destroy the religious and political 
bonds by which they had bound their new society and 
government together.' 

At their head was Henry Whitfield, B.D., who was 
styled ' Preacher of God's Word at Ockley in Surrey,' 
and who under this title was the author of a book called 
1 Some Helpes to stirre up to Christian Duties,' sold by 
John Bartlett at the Gilt Cup in Cheapside, 1634. It 
is a curious fact that, of the remaining thirty-nine names 
of the founders of Guilford, but three — Richard Bristow, 
Thomas Naish, and Thomas Norton — can be found in 
our local records of that date. These early emigrants 
settled down at a place then called by the Indians Menun- 
katuk, and they tell us in their records that c they called 
the place Guilford in remembrance of Guildford, a 
borough town, the capital of Surrey, where many of them 
had lived.' 

In face of the facts of Whitfield having come from 
Surrey, and of the names of three Guildford men appear- 
ing in this list, we do not like to disturb so interesting a 
tradition, but we confess to having some doubts on that 
score. The land they selected was, they tell us, i low, 
flat, and moist,' and one would think such land would 
hardly remind them of Surrey. 

There is a place in Sussex now called Guilford, or East 
Guilford, 3^ miles from Rye, in the diocese of Chiches- 
ter, containing now only 157 persons, and the land about 
there is ' low, flat, and moist.' We will gladly retain the 
interesting link between us and the States, but are inclined 
to wonder whether the Sussex village was not in the 
minds of some of the emigrants rather than the Surrey 

Some day an investigation in Sussex may assist us to 
identify any local names with those above mentioned, but 
meantime there is nothing to disprove the close connec- 


tion between our own town and Guilford, Conn., inas- 
much as many men have lived here whose names have 
been lost sight of, and who took no part in town affairs, 
and we would gladly more closely prove the connection 
that in Connecticut is undoubtedly taken for granted. 

On September 29th, 1639, Henry Whitfield, Robert 
Kitchell, William Leete, William Chittendon, John 
Bishop, and John Caffinge, on behalf of themselves and 
others, bought the land of the sachem-squaw by deed. 
The price was 12 coats, 12 fathoms of wampum, 12 
glasses, 1 2 pairs of shoes, 1 2 hatchets, 1 2 pairs of stock- 
ings, 12 hoes, 4 kettles, 1 2 knives, 12 hats, 12 porringers, 
1 2 spoons, and 2 English coats. The deed of purchase is 
still carefully preserved. Other land round about was 
purchased upon similar terms from time to time of the 

In the town still remains a house that is known to 
Americans as the oldest house in the United States, with 
the exception of some Spanish ones in Florida and 
Mexico. This stone house was built in 1639, and is 
therefore 265 years old. It was erected both for the 
accommodation of Mr. Whitfield's family and as a fortifi- 
cation against the Indians. When first erected there 
seems to have been a hesitancy on the part of the 
settlers whether, after all, they should not call their town 
Milford (after the Surrey village close to Guildford), but 
finally they fixed on the latter name, according to the 
entry in their town records given above. 

The old house was kept in its original form until 1868, 
when it was necessary for it to undergo such renovation 
as changed to a great extent its appearance and internal 
arrangement. The north wall and large stone chimney 
have not, however, been altered at all. The house con- 
sists of two storeys and an attic, and stands on rising 
ground overlooking the plain south of the town. The 


walls are between three and four feet thick, plastered 
inside and out, narrow fissures being left in them through 
which muskets could be pointed at the redskins. The 
rooms are small and dark, owing to the deeply-recessed 
and small windows, and the ceilings are scarcely seven 
feet high. In the attic there are two recesses, evidently 
intended as places of concealment, and at the south-west 
corner of the second floor there is a singular embrasure 
commanding the approach, and evidently made for pur- 
poses of defence. 

The stone was brought by the Indians on hand-bar- 
rows across the swamp, and an ancient causeway over the 
boggy land is shown as the path employed for this pur- 
pose. Floors, beams, doors, and window-sashes were of 
oak, the window-recesses had broad seats, the panes of 
glass were diamond-shaped, and in many ways the old 
house must have reminded the settlers in its style of the 
timbered houses of Surrey in their day. The first Guil- 
ford wedding was celebrated in the house, the wedding- 
table being garnished, we are told, with the substantial 
luxuries of pork and pease-pudding. 

The inhabitants of the town of Guilford have 
recently acquired the house, and they are now having it 
altered into a town museum, and are placing in it such 
treasures of their early history as they possess or can 
gather together. 

That which the mother-town does not possess the 
daughter-town is now rapidly acquiring, and it seems to 
us that in that respect the mother has much to learn 
from the daughter. 

There is a great big central room in the ' Old Stone 
House,' extending right up to the roof, and with a 
huge fireplace at one end. This room, which had 
been cut up into smaller ones and altered in height by 
means of a modern floor of rough deal, put in half way 


up, is now being restored to what it was when the house 
was first erected, and the great oak beams of its roof 
are being revealed, and the fireplace renewed with its 
chimney corner, and all its original fittings, so far as they 
can be obtained or reproduced. Other rooms round it 
are being arranged, so that they, with it, may contain the 
treasures of the museum, and exhibit them to the fullest 
advantage. Over 300 gifts and loans have already been 
housed in the Old House, and the collection is a most 
instructive and interesting one. The property is vested 
in trustees, and the State has allotted an annual sum for 
its maintenance, so that it may become in process of time 
a State historical museum to embody the history of the 

A generation ago there was an important flax industry 
in the place, as in the mother-town in earlier days there 
was a cloth industry, and the trustees are gathering 
together appliances and samples in order to illustrate this 
old world industry. 

They have had given them, various ancient chairs, 
spinning wheels, clocks, fire implements, children's toys, 
and other articles of curious and domestic interest, which 
have belonged to the earliest settlers, or have been con- 
nected with the history of the place, and gradually they 
will be able to build up a very important collection of 
curiosities and attractive exhibits, that will serve to 
remind the inhabitants of this go-ahead town of the days 
that are past, and the troubles connected with the first 
settlement of the place. 

It seems strange that the work which Guilford is 
doing has never been done in Guildford, and that, 
although in the Surrey town there is an archaeological 
Museum, it is in no sense a Town Museum, and it 
illustrates very little of the past life of the place 
in which it is situate. There are many Guildford 


people who have never even entered the Museum in 
Castle Arch, and who know practically nothing of it, and, 
although there are innumerable treasures in the town 
connected with its past history which should be the 
property of the governing body of the place, and be 
exhibited in the local museum, there appears to be little 
or no interest either in their preservation or in their 
exhibition. It is not for us to suggest to the Corporation 
that they should take up another work demanding more 
expenses, and adding more costs to our already over- 
burdened taxation, but it does seem strange and somewhat 
pathetic that, while New England is doing her best to 
c conserve ' the ancient house that remains as one of her 
most treasured possessions, and to exhibit in it all that apper- 
tains to her past history, the older town from which she 
sprang should think so little of its ancient life. It 
possesses a wealth of fine old houses, a beautiful High 
Street, unequalled in the country, and many things 
belonging to its past history, and it has never attempted to 
gather up all the memorials of the days that are past, or 
preserve them from destruction and exhibit them to the 
children who are to follow, and to whom they will have 
even greater interest than those who are nearer to the 
days they represent. 

Are there not many relics of the old days in 
Guildford : relics of the riots, relics of the Stuart times, 
relics of the cloth industry, coins, tokens, books, playbills, 
election squibs, pictures, engravings, pottery, glass, etc., 
which exist in many houses and stand the risk of 
destruction by fire or loss, but are all of them of the 
deepest interest with reference to the history of the 
town ? 

The daughter-town is making an appeal to some 
of the townsmen of Guildford, to ask them if they will 
help in forming the Museum in far distant Connecticut, 


and very possibly to that remote place some of the 
things that belong to Guildford will find their way if 
the old town takes no interest in their preservation in 
England. Surely the moral of the lesson ought not 
to be thrown away upon Guildford. There ought to 
be found some one who will help to roll away the 
reproach from this ancient town, and who will learn 
the lesson so steadily taught us by our brothers in the 
States, and take steps ere it be too late to gather up 
and to cherish for future generations the things that 
appertain to our own local history, and which helped to 
make Guildford what it now is. 

Old houses in the States are guarded with jealous 
care; no one is allowed to injure or spoil them. There 
are but few, and they are to be handed down intact. 
Their owners know that they hold them in trust for 
succeeding generations. Would that the same spirit 
could be found in England, and that a strong effort 
could be made in this fine old town to guard all its 
beauty, and all its charm, and keep with jealous anxiety 
every dwelling and every treasure belonging to the past 
history of the place. Every year is making such work 
more difficult. Every day is helping to spoil the old 
world beauty of Guildford. Are her inhabitants going 
to allow their cousins in the States to teach them how 
to reverence the past, or is the old neglect going on for 
ever ? 

It rests for Guildford to make its reply. 

The inhabitants of Guilford, Conn., are naturally very 
interested in the history of the original founders of their 
town. They cherish every tradition with respect to 
them, and are keenly alive to all genealogical investigation 
respecting their own connection with the band of 
Pilgrim settlers. 

The town was certainly settled by a very superior class 


of young men gathered from the South of England. All 
were educated, and many were graduates at Oxford and 
Cambridge. Whitfield was an Oxford man, a barrister, 
who afterwards took Orders. He was a friend of Cotton, 
Hooker, Goodwin, Nye, and Davenport ; was cited 
before the Court of Star Chamber and before Laud ; 
eventually became a Congregationalist, and then left for 
New England. He was also a great friend of the Rev. 
John Wilson, at that time Rector of St. Nicholas, 
Guildford, and he wrote a preface for the work pub- 
lished by his friend in 1631, entitled l Zacheus Con- 
verted,' strongly recommending the book. This quaint 
little duodecimo is now very rare and constitutes a very 
interesting link between Guildford in Surrey and 
Guilford in Connecticut. After settling his friends in 
Connecticut Whitfield returned to England in 1650 and 
is said to have died in this country ten years afterwards. 

Samuel Hoadley, another of the settlers, bears a name 
of historical importance. He was the father of Benjamin 
Hoadley, who, coming back to England, was in 17 10 
Rector of Streatham, Surrey, and afterwards successively 
Bishop of Bangor, Salisbury, and Winchester. His 
brother John, who went from the States to Ireland, 
became Archbishop of Armagh. 

John Higginson, another settler, was the successor of 
Whitfield in the pastorate, but upon his removal to Salem 
in 1660 he was succeeded by Joseph Eliot, who was the 
son of John Eliot, the illustrious Apostle to the Indians. 
His translation of the Bible into the Indian tongue was 
first published in 1663, and there is now, we are told, but 
one person living who can read or understand a single 
verse in any of the few perfect copies of this very scarce 
work preserved in the great American libraries. 

Mr. J. Hammond Trumbull, of Hertford, late Secre- 
tary of State for Connecticut, is the person to whom we 


refer, and he is not of the race for whom the translation 
was made. They have, alas, all long since passed away. 
' Up Biblum God,' which means ' The Book of God,' is 
a portion of the title of Eliot's Bible. ' Wutappesiltu- 
qussunuookwehtunkquoh ' (' kneeling down to him ') is a 
single word, while one of the shortest verses runs as 
follows : l Nummelsuougash assekesukokish assneauneau 
zeezeu kesukod.' The edition was of 1,000 copies, but 
not more than fifteen are known to be preserved in the 

We refer to the book at length because it was the first 
Bible of any language printed in America, and the son of 
its illustrious translator settled in Guilford in 1664, and 
his descendants live there still. 

One more illustrious inhabitant of Guilford must be 
mentioned in FitzGreene Halleck, the poet. He was 
born at Guilford in 1790, and died there in 1867, and 
stands in a very high position in the rank of American 
poets, side by side with Bryant, Dana, Sprague, Long- 
fellow and Willis. He was the first American poet to 
whom was awarded the honour of a bronze statue in a 
public place. His statue, of heroic size, occupies a pro- 
minent position in Central Park, New York, and upon 
the occasion of its unveiling, May 15th, 1877, by the 
venerable poet Bryant, eulogistic poems, specially com- 
posed for the occasion by Oliver Wendell Holmes and 
John Greenleaf Whittier, were read. 

Desborough, another of the Guilford founders, after- 
wards returned to England, and became, under Cromwell, 
Lord Keeper of Scotland. 

In 1675 there came to Connecticut some more Puri- 
tans from the County of Surrey, and amongst them 
one Edward Lee, who went direct to Guilford and 
bought land and settled down there. This man was, we 
believe, the issuer of two Guildford tokens. 


The issuer was born in Guildford, but we have never 
been able to trace any important information respecting 
him beyond this fact, and that of his being a Non- 
conformist. His death nowhere appears in the parish 
registers, and we believe that he left the town for New 
England for religion's sake, and in 1675 became one of 
the early settlers in Guilford, Conn. 

Of the town in the present day we cannot now say 
very much. Guilford has its wardens and its select 
men, answering to our own * approved ' men. It has its 
town bridge and town mills, its public schools, churches 
and chapels, its almshouses and poorhouse. It looks 
strangely familiar to see mention of the borough of Guil- 
ford in the town account, and to read of the borough 
treasurer and town auditors. 

There are borough justices and even freemen, and the 
author has had the honour of invitation to be enrolled in 
the list of honorary freemen of Guilford. In July, 1874, 
the charter of the borough of Guilford was revised and 
amended by the General Assembly of the State of Con- 
necticut ; and in the revised charter the Corporation is 
termed the Warden, Burgesses and Freemen of the bor- 
ough of Guilford, and have perpetual succession. 

This Corporation is one of the oldest and one of the 
smallest in the States. It was chartered in 181 6 origi- 
nally, and its supreme local authority is still the town 
meeting, or assembly of all the adult males forming the 
freemen. From this meeting is chosen the c select,' or 
1 approved,' and we have therefore the most simple and 
primitive form of folk moot and witenagemot still existing 
in the United States. 

On September 8th, 9th and 10th, 1889, the citizens 
celebrated the 250th anniversary of their ancient town. 
In the spelling of the name of the town the inhabitants 
have retained the older orthography, such as appears on 


the trade tokens of Guildford in 1668. The town in 
Sussex, to which we have already referred, also continues 
the same old style of spelling. 

In the minds of the people there is no doubt of the 
close connection between Surrey and Connecticut, and, if 
that is so, it may probably be traced to the influence of 
Whitfield and his memories of Surrey. 

Guildford has, however, another and a separate claim 
upon the interest of New England. Dr. Cotton Mather, 
in his autobiographical experiences, states that his first 
and permanent religious impressions were derived from 
the preaching and teaching of ' one Wilson, the great 
Guildford preacher, at that time Rector of S. Nicholas, 
in Guildford, Surrey.' 

This was the Rev. John Wilson, who was instituted 
to the living March 14th, 1570, died at the Rectory in 
October, 1630, and was buried in the church October 
22nd, 1630. He was presented to the living by Lettice, 
Countess Dowager of Leicester, and Sir Christopher 
Blount, her husband, who jointly held the next presenta- 
tion by demise from the Dean of Salisbury. The Dean 
and Chapter were for centuries patrons of the living. 

Wilson attained considerable notoriety as a preacher, 
and, as from Cotton Mather New England received her 
first formulated theology, her earliest and most valued 
theological works and very much of her religious 
character, Guildford may claim to have been the original 
instrument for producing this result. New England 
was religiously nurtured by the parish of St. Nicholas, 
in Guildford, Surrey. 




A. Will of Robert Beckingham, Founder, 3 

November, 1509 

B. Will of Elizabeth Beckingham, His Wife, 

15 August, 15 10 

C. Abstract of the Will of Thomas Polsted, 

Executor to Robert Beckingham, 12 March, 

D. Conveyance Executed by the Executors of 

Robert Beckingham, Endowing the Grammar 
School with Certain Rentals at Bromley 
and Newington, 4 May, 4 Henry VIII 



In the name of God Amen The iij de day of Novembr 
the yere of o r lord god MVIX And the first yere of the 
Reigne of Kyng Henry the viij th I Robert Bekingh 3 m 
Citizen and groc' of london beyng hole of mynde And of 
good remembrance thanked be god make and ordeyn this 
my p'sent testame't and last will in this fo r me folowing 
I beque'th and recomend my soule to almighty god my 
maker Jhu' crist to his moder o r blissed lady seynt Mary 
and to all the holy co'pany of he'ven and my body to be 
buried in the church of seynt Oluffin Southwerke before 
the Roode next unto the the sepultur of Wesenham It' 
I beque'th to the high aulter in the same church in re- 
membrance of my tithes necligently forgoten and w 1 drawen 
ijs V j d It' I beque'th to the aulter of our lady and 
to the sustentacion of the bretherhed of o r lady founded 
in the same church vj s viij d It' I beque'th to the preest 
of o r lady bretherhed xvj d to pray for my soule the space 
of xij moneths that is to Wite iij dayes in the weke Mon- 
day Wednysday and ffriday. It' I beque'th to the 
mayntennce of the light of seynt John and seynt 
Anne in the same church xij d It' I beque'th to 
the sustentac'on of the bretherhede of Alhalow'en and 
seynt Clement and to the mayntennce of seynt Ursula 
masse in the same church evenly to be divided amonge 
them vj s viij d It' I beque'th to Robert Taillo 1 " of Brayne- 
ford and to my moder his Wif twoo litell masers. It' I 
beque'th to my brother Ric' Bekingh'm one of my gownes 
furred w 1 foxe a doublett a payre of hosen a shirte a capp 
and all othr thinge to his body complete a federbed w t all 
thinge belonging to a bedde my Wodebuyse and xx 9 in 
money. Itm I beque'th to John Blakney capper a feder- 


bedd complete w l all thinge belongyng to the same iij 
platers iij disshes iij sawcers A brasse pott a brasse panne 
a spitt and one of my cast gownes. It' I beque'th to the 
chartiehouse of london to have me in remembrance 
amonge them as their brother by a letter iij 8 iiij d It' I 
beque'th to thabbot & Convent of Thame to have me in 
remembrance amonge theym as A brother by A l're 
iij 8 iiij d It' I beque'th to the bieldyng of the Stepill of 
Brayneford xiij s iiij d It' I beque'th to the blakefreeres of 
london to pray for my soule and to come and bryng my 
body to the church vj s viij d It' I beque'th to the brethern 
and sisters of Syon to have me in remembrance amonge 
them as a brother by A l're iij s iiij d It' I beque'th to the 
Nonnes of Burneh'm in Bukkshire to pray for my soule 
iij 8 iiij d It' I beque'th to Rauff se'vnt xl s To Robert 
May xl s and to Antony Totehill xl s to be paid unto 
them at the comyng out of their t'mes of yeres soo that 
they be good sev'ntes to my Wif and to myn assignez 
And they that doeth the contrary Wol not be ruled by 
my'n ov'sears to have no thing of that that I have 
beque'thed unto them It' I beque'th to Elizabeth my 
Wif all the terme of yeres which I have now to come of 
and in all those tente and gardeyns which I have by 
Cove'nt seale thabbott and convent of Waverley wMn 
the pisshe of seynt Margarete in Suthwerke aforsaid for 
terme of hir lif and after her decesse I beque'th the Rest 
of the said t'me of yeres of and in all said tente and gar- 
deyns to John Croster Citizen and groc' of london It' I 
beque'th to the same John the Custody of ij childern 
called John Wyly and Johane Wyly w* all such londe 
and profitt as cometh by theym lying in ffarneh'm Ryall 
in Bukkyngh'mshire unto the tyme the heire of the land 
be of laufull age It' I beque'th to Johane the Wif of the 
said John Croster A gilt cup w l a cov' to John Croster 
my godson vj silv' sponys To Elizabeth Croster A pece 


of silv' To Alice Croster A maser And I will that 
ev'y child shallbe y e others heyre It' I beque'the to 
Robert ffbster ij rynge of silv' and gilt to Maryon ffoster 
A stonding pece of silv' wtoute A cov' A maser 
and vj silv' spones To Andrew ffoster a crosse of silv' 
and gilt to John Warde A doublett of Worsted and A 
payre of hosen It' I beque'th to Ric' Wether oon of rny 
foxe furred gownes and my cloke It I beque'th to 
Robert Lane my godson a goblett of silv' w fc three feet 
To his moder Elizabeth lane A ryng of gold To Wil- 
liam Bekingh'm carpent' a ryng of gold To his Wif a 
ryng of gold To James Totehill at thende of his yeres 
beside his wage yj s viij d to Henry Totehill and he be 
bounde and kepe out his yeres then according to my 
coven'nte I woll he shall have xl s It' I beque'th to John 
Tedyr my blake gowne furred It' I beque'th to John 
lane my violett gowne furred w l shanke the best It' I 
beque'th to John Croster my muzzey gowne lyned It' I 
beque'the to Thomas Polsted gent a russett gowne that 
shallbe redy furred for him w fc foxe It' I beque'th to 
John Blakney wever a single tawny gowne and a doublet 
of lether sieved w fc Worsted It' I bequeth to the poore 
householders w l in the pisshe of Seynt Oluff aforeseid 
where moost nede is to be geven amonge theym aftir the 
discrecion of myn executrice xx s It' I will that the said 
Elizabeth my Wif shall duryng hir lif kepe an obite 
yerely for my soule in the said church of seynt Oluff at 
which obite to be spent xx s amonge preeste and clerke 
and the poore people of the same pisshe as shall thinke 
best to be doon It' I geve and beque'th to the said 
Elizabeth my Wyf all my londe and tent' wodez pasture 
and Waters w l all their app r ten'nce which I have in the 
pisshe of Bromeley in the Countie of Kent in the pisshe 
of Newenton in the Countie of Surr' in Brayneford in 
the pisshe of Yeling in the County of Midd' To have 


and to hold to the same Elizabeth for t'me of hir life And 
after her decesse I will that all my said londe and tente 
Woodes and Waters w l thapp r ten'nces in Brayneford 
aforseid to be sold by the ov'seares of this my last will to 
the moost advauntage And that they w l the money 
therof comyng p'chase asmuche londe to the value w l in 
the Citie of london which lond so p'chased I geve and 
beque'th to the feliship of the grocers w'in the Citie ot 
london and to their successours to thentent that they 
shall yerely for ev'more kepe an obite for my soule w l in 
the church of Seynt Oluff aforeseid upon midlent sonday 
that is to Wite w l placebo and dirige by note on the even' 
and masse of Requiem on the morow And that the 
maisters and Wardeyns of the said feliship w l other of 
theire company to be at the said Dirige and masse and 
say the psalme of De profundis for my soule w l other 
prayers to the same psalme accustomed At which obite 
I will there be spent and disposed amonge preeste and 
clerke ringyng of belle and upon the said feliship at the 
same tyme beyng p'sent xyj s viij d after the discrecions 
and Wysedoms of the said Maisters and Wardeyns for the 
tyme beyng And if it soo be that the said Maister and 
Wardeyns refuse and will not take upon theym the charge 
of the said obite than I will that the said lond so p'chased 
in london be disposed by my said ov'seers or by any or 
theym that shall lengest happen to be on lyve in other 
good werke and deede of charitie as they shall thinke best 
to be doon to the pleasur' of god and pfitt of my soule 
It' I woll that if the pisshen's of the pisshe of seynt Oluff 
aforseid w l in the space of two yeres next folowing aft' 
my decesse purchase a corporacion for o r lady bretherhed 
kepte wMn the said church of seynt Oluff than I woll 
that aftir the decesse of the said Elizabeth my Wif all my 
seid londe and tente in Bromeley and Newenton aforsaid 
remavn to the said bretherhode of o r lady therew 1 tosynde 


a preeste ppetually so syng for my soule my frende soules 
& all cristen soules in the church of seynt Oluff for the 
ppetuall contynuaunce therof to be made as sure as shalbe 
advised by the counsaili lerned of my said ov'sears in man' 
and fo r me abovesaid Provided alwey that if the said 
pisshen's puchase not the said corpacion as before is 
rehersed Than I will that my said londe in Bromeley 
& Newenton aforesaid be ordered aft' the good discre- 
cions of my said ov'sears to make A free scole at the 
towne of Guldford or to be disposed in other goode werke 
and deede of charitie as they shall thinke best to be done 
to the moost pleasur' of Almighty god and profitt of my 
soule The Residue of my goode dette and catalle moe- 
vable and unmoevable Where soev' they may be founde 
my dette paid and this my p'sent testament fulfilled I geve 
and beque'th to the saide Elizabeth my Wif therew 1 to doo 
hir own free will Which Elizabeth I ordeyn & make 
of this my p'sent testament and last will my sole execu- 
trice Also I ordeyne and make the said Thomas Polsted 
]ohn Lane and John Croster ov'seers of the same Thies 
Wittnesses beyng p'sent Edmond Hudson Ric' Beck- 
yngh'm Ric' Wether Robert fibster Thomas Adnell 
Richard Vannell and other In Wittnes Wherof to this 
my p'sent testament and last Will I have put my seale. 
Goven the day and yeres abovesaid 

Proved 13 Nov. 1509 by Elizabeth, relict and execu- 

(P. C. C. Bennett, folio 21.) 



In the Name of God Amen The xv th day of August 
The yere of o r lord god MVX And the ij de yere of 
the Reigne of King Henry the viij I Elizabeth Bek- 
yngh'm of London Widow beyng in my good and 
hole mynde thanked be god make ordeyn & dispose 
this my present testament conteyning my last Will in 
man' and fo'me folowing that is to Witte ffirst I beque'th 
recomend my soule unto almighty god my maker Sc 
redem' to his glorious moder of mercy o r lady Mary the 
Virgin & to all the hole company of heVen And my 
body to be buried in the churche of seynt Oluffin Suth- 
werk in the Countie of Surrey before the Roode there yn 
or nyghe the place where the body of Robert bekyngh'm 
late my husbond now lyeth buried And I beque'th unto 
the high aulter of the same church of seynt Oluff for my 
tithes & oblacions forgoten or necligently w f holden in 
dischargeing of my soule iij s iiij d It' I beque'th to the 
bretherhedof o r lady in the same church founded iij s iiij d It' 
I beque'th to the susterhod of seynt Anne there xij d It* 
I beque'th to the bretherhode of seynt Clement seynt 
Ursula Alhalowen and seynt Eleyn in the same churche 
founded iij s iiij d It' I beque'th to Blanche my cosyn A 
gowne & A kyrtill and asmoche household stuff as shall 
extende to the some of xx s It' I beq'th to Johane 
Otle a rynge of gold w l A rede tablett It' I beque'th to 
Richard Wyther taylo r xl s that is to saye in money xx s & 
in household stuff xx s A dyap towell and A pay re of 
shete It' I beque'th to the same Ric' Whether toward 
the kepingof Robert Wyly xl s And if the same Robert 
Wyly at any time be taken from the custody of the said 


Richard Whether than I beque'th xl s to the same Ric' 
Whether to have his owne propre use Itm I beque'th 
to the Wif of the same Ric' Whether A gowne of 
violett furred w* grave It' I beque'th to Johane Whether 
vj playn napkyns and A playn towell It' I beque'th to 
Agnes Wether vj diap r napkyns and A towell of Raynys 
It' I beque'th Ric' Bekyngh'm my broder in lawe A 
silv' spone It' I beque'th to Robert lane and Elizabeth 
lane vj silv' sponys lyke mases in fac'eon {fashion) at 
thendes It' I beque'th to Agnes fford A payre of 
shet e It' I beque'th to y e Wif of Thomas Polsted a 
russat gowne furred w t shanke It' I beque'th to the 
Wif of John lane groc' A violet gowne furrid w l shanke 
It' I beque'th Elizabeth Tyndall A violett gowne furrid 
w l white It' I beque'th to S r Robert Davey my gostly 
fader to pray for my soule vj s viij d It' I beque'th unto 
moder basse in household stuff x s It' I beque'th to 
Rauff ffaryngton Robert May & to Antony Totehill myn 
apprentice iij 1 * that is to wite to ev'y of them xx s And 
also ev'y of them to have a pane & A ketill of brasse aftir 
the discricion of myn executo r s w l in named ffurthermore 
as to the disposecion of all my londe and tent' wode pas- 
ture & watere w* all their app r tennce which I have in 
braynford in the pisshe of Yelyng in the Countie of Midd' 
I will that all my said londe and tent e w l other the 
p r missez and app r tennce aforsaid be sold by myn execu- 
to r s underwritten at the most avauntage and that they 
w 1 the money therof comyng p r chase alsomuche londe 
and tent e to the value therof win the Citie of london 
which londe and tent e so purchased I geve and beque'th 
to the feliship of grocers w l in the said Citie and to 
their successors To thentent that they shall yerely for 
ev'more kepe an obit for my soule the soule of Robert 
bekyngh'm my husbond the soules of John ffyshe and 
Cristian his Wif my fader and moder and all cristen soules 


w* in the said pisshe churche of seynt Oluff upon Mkld- 
lent sonday that is to wite w 1 Placebo and Dirige by note 
on the even and masse of Requiem on the morrow And 
that the Maisters and Wardeyns of the said feliship 
w l other of their company to be at the saide Dirige and 
masse and say the psalme of De profundis for my soule & 
the soules aforsaid w l other prayers to the same psalme 
acustomed At whiche obit I will there be spent and 
disposid amonge preeste and clerke ryngyng of belle and 
upon feliship at the same obite beyng p'sent xvj s viij d aftir 
the discrecions and Wisedoms of the Maisters and War- 
deyns of the same crafte of grocers for the tyme beyng 
And if so be that the said Maisters and Wardeyns refuse 
and woll not take upon theym the charge of the said 
obite I will then that the same londe and tente so 
p r chased in london by disposid by my'n executo r s and by 
either of them lengest lyving in other good Werke deede 
of charitie as they shall thinke best to be doon to the 
pleasur' of god and helth of my soule The Residue of 
all my goode catalls & dette what soev' they be aftir my 
dett' paid the cost' of my burying don and as well this 
my p'sent testament as the testame't of the forsaid Robert 
Bekyngh'm my husbond Whose executrix I am in all 
thinge p r formed and fulfilled I woll be disposid for the 
helthe of my soule in deede and werke of m'cy & pytie 
by the discrecion of Thomas Polsted gent & John lane 
Citizen & groc' of london Whiche Thomas Polsted and 
John lane of this my p'sent testame't I make and ordeyn 
my'n executo r s And I beque'th to either of them for 
his labo r in the p'missez to be had x s And their ov'sear 
I make and ordeyn the forsaid Ric' Wether & John 
Tyndall And I beque'th to either of my said ov'sears for 
his labo r to be had in the p'missez vj s viij d In wittnesse 
Whereof to this my p'sent testame't and last Will I have 
sett my seale Goven the day and yere abovesaid Thies 



Wittnessen John Gelston Wyresellar Thomas Adnell 
lethersellar and Citizens of london. 

Proved 7 Nov. 15 10 by Thomas Polsted & John Lane 

(P. C. C. 33 Bennett) 


12 Mar < j Thomas Polsted of the parishe of Stoke 

152 9 next Guldeforde in the Countie of Sur- 

rey ' — to be buried in the parishe Churche 
of Stoke in the body of the Churche before the Roode 
there — to the Parish Churche of the Holy Trinitie in 
Guldford 2 os — my exors : i to fynde an honest preest 
of good conuersacion to say masse in the parishe Churche 
where my body is buried to pray for my soule my father 
and mother soules Henry Elyott soule the soule ot 
Robert Bekingham and Elizabethe his wife for Law- 
rence Harrison soule and all Xren soules ' — daughter 
Margaret if she marry with consent of my wife & sons 
— wife Agnes — sons Thomas & Henry Polsted — brothers 
Henry & John Polsted — guardianship of Anthony, son of 
Humphry & Elizabeth Elmes (of Henley on Thames) to 
my wife and sons — exors : sd. wife & sons. 

Proved 20 Ap 1529 by Agnes, Thomas & Henry 






Be this knowyn to all men to whom p'sent {present) 
wrytyny tripparted Indented shall com' that where Robt. 
Bekyngham late of London Grocer deceassyd by his last 
will made and declaryd the third day of November the 
yere of our lord god mvix and in the ffirst yere of the 
reign of Kyng Henry the viij th among othyr thyngs 
Godly declared and made withyn the pisshe of Seynt 
Olof yn Southwerk withyn the space of two yerys next 
folowyng aftur his deceasse perpetually to the corpacon 
{corporation) for oure Lady Brothorhod kept withyn the 
seid churche that then after the deceasse of Elizabeth 
the wif of the seid Robt. all her lands and rents in 
Bromley in the countye of Kent and Newenton in the 
countye of Surr' shuld remayn to the seid Brotherhod or 
oure Lady therewith to fynd a prest p'petually {perpetu- 
ally) to syng for his soule his frynds soulys and all cristyn 
soulys in the seid churche of Seynt Olef pVyddyd 
{provided) alwey that if the seid pochiens {parishioners) 
p'chasyd {purchased) not the corp' aeon as before reherse'd 
then the seid Robt. by his seid last will willyd that his 
seyd lands and ten'ts {tenements) in Bromley and Newen- 
ton forseid shuld be ordred aftur the good descrec'ons or 
the ov'seers {overseers) of his seid last will to make a free 
scole at the Towne of Guldeford or in other works & 
deds of charite after the discrec'on of the seid ov'seers as 
in the seid last will more playnly it appyth {appear eth) 
which Robt. Bekyngham to thentente that his seid last 


will shuld be well and truly p'fo r myd [performed) and 
fulfyllyd he enfeoffid the said Thomas Polsted, John 
Lane, Edmond Hudson, John Croster, and Will'm Baron 
of the seid landys and ten'ts {tenements) and made the seid 
Thomas Polsted, John Lane, and John Croster ov 'seers 
of his seid last will and the foreseid Robt. Bekyngham 
aft' ward the v day of november the yere of the Lord 
God mvix aforeseid dyed and the pochiens [parishioners) 
of the seid pisshe [parish) of Seynt Olef as yet have pur- 
chesyd no corp'acon [corporation) for the seid Brotherhod 
of oure Lady wherfore the seid Thomas Polsted, John 
Lane, and John Croster be'n [being) now bounden in 
ther conscyens to see the seid lands and ten'ts [tenements) 
orderd and disposid to the mayntennce of the ffree scole 
in the seid Towne of Guldeford accordyng to the seid 
last will of the seid Robt. Bekyngham or in other dedes 
of charite for the begynnyng stablysshyng and contynuall 
mayntennce of which ffree scole it is nowe condyssendyd 
concludyd and aggreed be'twene the seid Thomas Polsted, 
John Lane, and John Croster, and Harry Norbrigge, 
meier of the seid Towne of Guldeford John Stoughton, 
Will a m Russell, John Parkyn, John George, John 
Shyngelton, and Will a m Hamond, Inhabitaunts wi l n 
[within) the seid Towne in maner and forme heraftur 
ensuyng that is to wete fyrst the seid Thomas Polsted, 
John Lane, and John Croster, ben contentid and aggreed 
to make a ffeofFement of the seid lands and ten'ts [tene- 
ments) to Sir George Maners, knyght, Robt. Wyntreshill 
[Wyntershili), Esquyer, Gilbert Stoughton, Henry Nor- 
brigge, Will a m Russell, John Weston, Will a m West- 
broke, Cristofer More, Danyel Mugge, John Perkyn, 
John George, Nicholas Elyot, Will a m Hamond, John 
Shyngelton, and John Stoughton, to have and hold the 
seid lands and ten'ts [tenements) to theym and to there 
heires for ev' [ever) to thuse [the use) and intent that 


from hensforth the meier of the seid Towne of Guide- 
ford for the tyme beyng and fower of the moste honest 
sad and discrete p'sons [persons] inhabitant in the seid 
Towne that have be'n meirs of the same Towne or 
twoo of them shall yerely p'ceyve [perceive) and take the 
issues and p'fits [profits) of the seid lands & ten'ts [tene- 
ments) uppon condic'on that the meier of the seid Towne 
of Guldeford for the tyme beyng and his Brethern such 
as have ben meiers of the same Towne and other enhabi- 
taunts withyn the same Towne shall from hensforth kepe 
and maynte'n a ffree gramer scole in the seid Towne ot 
Guldeford and that there shalbe a sufficient scole master 
there alwey from hensforth to kepe the seid scole and 
frely to teche all childern beyng in the same scole the 
same scole master to be namyd appoyntyd and removid 
by the meier of the seid Towne for the tyme beyng and 
by fower of his most sad and discrete Brethern inhabitant 
in the* seid Towne suche as have be'n meiers of the same 
Towne. Also it is aggreed that the meier of the seid 
Towne and his seid Brethern shall kepe and maynteyn 
all the howsys of the seid lands and ten'ts well and suffi- 
ciently repeyred at all tymes and if the meier of the seid 
Towne of Guldeford and his seid Brethern frome hens- 
forth do not kepe and maynteyn a ffree gramer scole in 
the seid Towne and a sufficient scole master frely to 
teche all childern beyng in the same scole at all tymes 
and also kepe and maynteyn the rep'acons [reparations) 
of all the howses of the seid lands and ten'ts as is afore 
rehersyd then it is concludyd and aggreed betwene the 
seid parties to thyese indenturys that the seid Sir George 
Maners and his cofeoffees of the seid lands and ten'ts not 
dwellyng in the seid Towne of Guldeford and all other 
p'sons that heraftur shalbe heraftur seasyd of the seid 
lands and ten'ts and be not dwellyng in the seid Towne 
of Guldeford shall from thenc forth n'ceyve [perceive) and 


take thyssues (the issues) revenues and p'fits (profits) of the 
seid lands and ten'ts and with the same kepe and mayn- 
teyn a free gramer scole in the seid Towne of Guldeford 
or in som' other place withyn the seid countye of Surr' 
by their discrecons to be lymytted and appoyntyd in like 
maner and forme as is afore rehersyd or ellys the seid 
ffeoffees with the seid Issues and p'fits to do som' other 
good ded of charite accordyng to the seid last will of the 
seid Robt. Bekyngham and when' it shall happen all the 
seid ffeoffees to dye except foure then those foure that 
longest lyve shall make a ffeoffement of the seid lands 
and ten'ts by dede indentid to xiiij or xvi of the moost 
wurshipfull honest sad and discrete gentilmen dwellvng 
next to the seid Towne of Guldeford and to the most 
honeste and substanciall Brethern of the seid Towne to 
have and hold the seid lands and ten'ts to theym and to 
there heires to the use and intents afore rehersyd and so 
from tyme to tyme as often and when' all the ffeofees or 
the seid lands and ten'ts be'n ded (being dead) except 
foure those foure the longest lyve shall make a newe 
ffeoffement of the seid lands and ten'ts to xiiij or xvi of 
the most worshipfull sad and discrete gentelmen dwellyng 
next to the seid Towne of Guldeford and to the most 
honest and substancial Brethern of the same Towne to 
thuses (the uses) and intents a fore expressed Also it is 
concluded and aggreed be twene the seid p'ties that the 
scole master of the seid scole for the tyme beyng and the 
children of the same scole shall sey ev'y (every) day in 
the mornyng when they first asseemble in the scole the 
Salmys (Psahns) i Bene miserias me. ' and, ( Deus in nom' 
tuo salvum me fac,' and at nyght ev'y [every) day afore 
they depart oute of the scole to seye the salme of c miser- 
ere mei deus ' w 1 * De profundis ' and the orisons to the 
same salme appyrd (appointed) for the soulys of the seid 
Robt. Bekyngham and Elizabeth his wife and for the 


soulys of all the benefact's and maynteynors of the seid 
scole departed and for the good p'fitte and welfare of all 
them that be'n levyng. In Witnes wherof to one p'te 
[part] of this Indenture with the forseid meier and 
Inhabitaunts of Guldeford remaynyng the seid Thomas 
Polsted, John Lane, and John Croster, have sette theire 
seales and to the second p'te of the indenture with the 
seid Thomas Polsted, John Lane, and John Croster, and 
Sir George Maners, and his coffeofees remaynyng the 
seid meier and inhabitaunts have sette theire seales and 
to the third p'te of this endenture remaynyng with the 
Prior and Convent of the Friary next Guldeford as well 
the seid meire and inhabitaunts of Guldeford as the seid 
Thomas Polsted, John Lane and John Croster, have 
severally sette theire seales geven the fourth day of May 
the iiij th yere of reign of Kyng Henry the viij th 

Attached to this deed are nine slips of parchment by 
which the seals of the signatories were appended, but 
only three of the seals remain ; of these one label has 
the name of Thomas Polsted, but the seal is too obliterated 
to say what was the device. The next has the name of 
John Lane and the shield appears to be charged with 
three chevronels interlaced with a cross in chief. The 
third seal is quite illegible and the label, like the remain- 
ing six, has no name on it. 




Abbot, Anthony . . 115 

Abbot, George 23, 65, 81, 82, 86, 

89, 104, 107, 114, 115, 116, 


161, 162, 163, 209, 210 

Abbot, John 
Abbot, Mr. E. 
Abbot, Rich. . 
Abbot, Robert 
Abbot, Sir Maurice 

-^lfric (moneyer) . 



Aguillon, Wm. de . 

Akorton, Marcellinus de 

Alderton John 

Alexander III. 

Alfred, King . 

Alwie (moneyer) . 

Andree, Wm. . 

Andrews, E. . 

Anlaby, Susan . 

Annan, Viscount 

Annandale, James . 85, 87, 

Annandale, John, Earl of 84, 85, 

Anne, Queen . . .32, 62, 151 

Apark (beadle) 

Apted, Frank . 

Aquinas, St. Thomas 

Arundel, Mr. . 

Ashcombe, Lord 

Aslakeby, Andrew de 

Atlinger, John 

Aubrey, John . 

Augustine, St. . 

Austen, George 13, 16, 83, 84, 

98, 101, 102, 104, 108 
Austen, Godwin, Estate of . 112 
Austen, Jno. . . 32, 99, 100, 101 

Ayling, Rev. H. 209 

Aylward, John . . 1 9, 40 

5, "5 
. . 156 

115, 148, 157 
. 104, 115 

104, 114, 115, 




2, 146 







x 34 


Babb, Rich. . 
Bailey, John . 
Baker, Ann 
Baker, John . 
Baker, Rich. . 
Baker, Thos. . 
Bakewell, Mr. 
Balaman (moneyer) 
Baldwin, Mr. . 
Baldwin, Wm. 
Banister, Jack 
Bartlett, John . 
Barton, Samuel 
Baverstock, John 
Beauchamp, Mr. 
Beckingham, Elizabeth 
Beckingham, Richard 
Beckingham, Robert 






• 43 
. 156 
. 182 
. 215 
. 231 

• 157 
. 200 
. 188 

9*, 9 2 , 93 

• 9i 
90, 91, 92, 93, 

95, 9 6 , 97 
. 123 
. 123 
. 18 
. 157 
56, 60, 61, 171 
. 215 


Beeston, Adam 
Beeston, Cuthbert 
Bendbrick, Geo. 
Berry, Robert . 
Besse (author) . 
Betty, Master 
Bey, Elfi . 
Bilson, Thomas, Bishop of Win- 
chester . . 102, 103, 197 
Birch (historian) ... 86 
Birchall, John . . . .108 

Birchell, Matthew ... 60 
Birkbeck, Maurice . . .170 

Birkbeck, Morris . 179, 180, 1S1 
Birton, Richard de . . .134 

Bishop, John .... 232 
Bishop, Mr. . . . .166 
Bladworth, Mr. . . .188 
Blaise, St. 4, 63, 64, 117, 118, 1 1 9, 1 20 


Blakaman (moneyer) . . 43 

Blake, P 202 

Blindell, Mr 205 





Blount, Sir C. 

Booker, Charles 12, 14, 15 17 

Boughton, Mr. 

Bourchier, Sir T. 

Bovill, Sir Wm. 

Bownas, Samuel 

Boxall, C. 

Boxall, Jesse . 

Boyne, Wm. . 

Brabant, Wm. 

Braddon, Constable 

Brandon, Duke of Suffolk 

Brandon, Rev. P. 

Bray, Joan 

Bray, Sir R. 

Brayley and Britten 85, 86, 

Brinkwell, Mr. 

Bristow, Rich. 

Brocas, Arnold 

Brocas, Bernard 

Brodbridge, Robert 

Browne, John . 

Bryant (poet) . 

Budd, R., sen. 

Bull, Alfred 

Bull, Ephraim 

Bull, Mr. 

Bullen, John . . . 201. 

Bunyan, John 

Burgham, Alice de 

Burleigh, Lord 

Burley, Sir Simon 

Burnet, Bishop 

Burnyeat, John 

Burt, John 

Busby, Mr. 

Butler, J. 

Butler, Mr. . . 155, 

Butler, Mrs. . . .87, 


, l88 
I 12 

, 203 

. 157 





7h 77 
71, 112 











21 1 


Cable, Mr. John 
Cafhnge, John 
Calvin, John . 
Cambridge, Duke of 
Capron, J. Rand 
Carter, Francis 
Carter, John . 
Carter, Mr. C. 

200, 208 

15 1 


Catherine, St. . 
Caxton, Wm. . 
Challen, G. . 
Chandler, Joseph 
Chandler, Thos. 
Chandler, Wm. 
Chapman, Widow 
Charles I. 
Charles II. 


• H5 


. 158 

. 178 

179, 180 

179, 180 


Charrott, Thos. 
Cheal, John 
Cheal, Joseph . 
Cheney, Wm. . 
Chennell, Jno. 
Chennell, Thos. 
Chennell, Wm. 
Chesenel, R. . 
Chessam, Goody 
Child, Leonard 
Child, Mr. 
Childs, Jno. 
Chittendon, Wm. 
Christopher, St. 
Clarisse . 
Clark . 

Clark, Dr. J. Willis 
Clifton, Rev. Mr. 
Cnut, King 
Cobbett, Mr. . 
Cobden, Wm. . 
Cole, Samuel . 
Colebrooke, Mr. May 
Collas, H. 
Colwall, Daniel 
Colwall, Elizabeth 
Conestable, Andrew Le 
Constable, Thos. 
Conyers, Wm. de 
Cooke, Chas. 
Cooke, John 
Cooke, Jno. 
Cooke, J. R. 
Cooke, Mr. 
Cooper, C. 
Cooper Caleb 
Cooper, John 
Cooper, John, jnr 

46,47, 8 4, n6, 145 

, 18, 19,30, 31, 32, 51, 

54, 55> 57, in 


. 182 
. 183 
. 200 

• *3 

• 13 
H, 15, i7 

1 1 

• 155 
. 18 

67, 218 

18, 50 

. 232 

. 145 



104, 106, 109 
. 189 

• 6, 43 

• 53 
75» 79 
. 191 

144, 205 


86, 152 

. 86 

38, 210 

. 179 
. 142 

. 200 
200, 225 

• 13 

3, 225, 226 

. 188 

14, t5 

. 48 

171, 172 

. 179 

Cotton, H., Bishop of Norwich 104 




Cotton, W., Bishop of Exeter . 104 

Coxe, Thos. . . . .169 

Crakhile, Jno. de . .67 
Crane, Simon .... 48 

Cranley, Lord . . .190 

Croker, Rich. . . .178 

Cromwell, Oliver . 51, 122, 124 

Cromwell, Thos. . . . 8, 74 

Crooke, Mr. F. A. . . .144 

Crosfield, Anthony . 171, 172, 182 

Crosskey, John . 200, 202, 208 

Cumberland, Duke of . .88 
Currie, Henry 


Dabarne, Jno. . 

Dahl, Michael 

Dale, J. H. . 

Dale, Wm. . 

Dalmahoy, Thos. 

Dana (poet) 

Dann, Arthur . 

Darkinge, John 

Dart, J. . 

Davis, Constable 

Daws, Rich. 

Deane, Wm. . 

Denison, Mr. . 

Derrick, John . 

Derricke-Gilbertson Fami 

Desborough, Lord Keeper 

Dickenson, Thos. 


Dobson, Mr. . 

Dominic, St. . 

Dorset, Earl of 

Douglas . 

Dowlen, Mr. . 

Dowton (actor) 

Drummond, Henry 202, 

Drusiana . . 

Ducarel, Dr. . 
Dudley, Lord Guildford 
Dugdale (historian) . 
Dunn, Mr. 
Dungild (moneyer) . 
Dunstan (moneyer) . 
Dyrlton, Earl of 


204, 205 









. 215 

203, 204, 

206, 225 










Eager, Dr. 185, 202 

Edsell, Thos 178 

Edmund, Prince ... 69 
Edward Confessor, King 20, 23, 42, 

Edward I. 38, 6j y 68, 69, 134, 140, 

142, 143, 196 
Edward II. . . 8, 70, 134, 210 

Edward III. 8, 11, 19, 25, 70, 127, 

1 35» x 43, 2 °9 

Edward IV. 
Edward VI. . 
Edward, Prince 
Edwards, T. P. 
Eleanor, Queen 

Eliot, John 
Eliot, Joseph 

8, 197 

• 45» 82, 97 

. 127 

. 13 

7, 67, 68, 69, 134, 

• 237 

Elizabeth, Queen, 8, 1 8, 1 9, 23, 24, 32, 
45, 109, 123, 133, 166, 223 
Elizabeth, Queen of Henry VII. 1 1 2 

Elkins, E. 
Elkins, Rich. . 
Elkins, Wm. . 
Ellis, Isaac 
Ellis, Jas. 
Elwine (moneyer) 
Emlyn, W. O. 
Epps, Dr. 
Eric (moneyer) 
Essex, Earl of . 
Ethelred II. . 
Ethelvvald, King 
Evelyn, W. J. 

Fathers, R. 
Fernham, Peter de 
Fernham, Wm. de 
Feyrchild, John 
Ffawkes, Edward 
Fibbens, Wm. 
Filmer, E. D. 
Finnimore, B. F. 
Florence, Wm. of 
Flutter, Hy. 
Foote, Miss 
Ford, Ed. 
Fort, Friar 

13, 188 

157, 188 
, 14, 15, 89 
. 200 
. 200 

43> 44 
. 203 
. 201 

• 44 

123, 159 

6, 9, 42 


. 205 

• *3 

• 70 
. 72 
. 69 

178, 179 

• *3 

3> x 4, i5> l6 » l 7 

i3> «4i J5» 222 

7, 129 

. 18 
. 215 
. 18 





Foster, Chas. . 


Foster, Geo. . . 

J3) J 4> i5> l6 

Fox, Bishop 

• i97 

Fox, George . 172, 

i73> i74» J 79 

Fox, John 

. 151 

Freakes, Jas. . 

. 202 

Freek, Dr., Bishop of Norwich. 106 

Freke, Henry . 

. 127 

Friary Brewery Co. . 

. . 138 

Fuller. Hy. 

• *3 

Fuller, Mr. and Mrs. 

. 80 


. 16 


Gardiner, Bishop of Wii 

ichester 197 

Garrard, Marc 

. 151 

Genyns, Jo. 

• 75 

Genys, Thos. . 

. 71 

Geoffrey, Friar 

• 73 

Geoffry, John Fitz . 

. . 67 

George I. 

. 62 

George II. 

. 62 

George III. 

62, 196 

George IV. 

. 9, 88, 125 

Gerard, Prior . 

. 220 

Gilbert, Friar . 

• 73 

Gildford, Wm. de . 


Gill, Henery . 

. 168 

Gill, H. J. . 

. 182, 183 

Godalming, John de 

. 72 

Godfrey (engraver) . 

. . 138 

Godwine (moneyer) 

. 44 

Goodyear Family, The 

. 144 

Goodyear, Wm. 

. 157, 188 

Gordon, Sir E. 


Gorges, Sir Thos. . 

. . 83 

Graile, Jno. . 

. 18 

Grantley, Lord 

13, 16, 144 

Gregory, John. 

. 72 

Grey, Lady Jane . 

. 82 

Grey, Sir George 


Grew, Dr. N. 

. 86 

Grose (historian) 

• I3 1 * J 38 

Guildford, Earl of . 


Gunn, Mr. 

. 118 

Gurney, S. 

. 205 


Hall, Martin . 

• 155 

Halleck, F. G. 

. 238 


Halwood, Mr. . . .156 

Hamilton, Duchess of . 85, 86 

Hamilton, Duke of . . .85 

Hamonde, Wm. . 100, 101, 164 
Hanby, Chas. .... 49 
Harold II. 6, 44 

Harris (engraver) . . .113 

Harris, Thos. . . .158 

Harrison, Mr. . . . .188 

Harthacnut, King . . . 6, 43 

Hassell (artist) . . 137, 138 

Haveldersh, Walter de 72 

Hawkins (engraver) . . 138 

Hawkley, Mr. . . .188 

Haydon, Mr 188 

Haydon, Thos. . . .17 

Haydon, Jos. . . 12, 14 

Heathorn, Eliza . . . 200 

Henry II. . . 3, 6, 126, 140 

Henry III. 5, 6, 7, 10, 38, 67, 69, 
85, 126, 127, 140, 141, 142, 146 
Henry VI. . . .8, 70, 210 

Henry VII. II, 25, 70, 92, 223, 224 
Henry VIII 8, 23, 24, 32, 45, 73, 74, 
81,82,93,97, 108,145,223 
Henry, Prince 7, 67, 68, 69, 134 

Herd, Daniel .... 200 
Herman, Bernard . . 71 

Hermann, Prior . . . 209 

Home, R., Bishop of Winchester 104 

Herod 129 

Hertford, Earl of . . .82 

Heyward, C. . . . . 200 

Higginson, John . . . 237 

Highgason, Robt. . . . 200 

Hill, Dr 159 

Hill, Jno 18 

Hill, Wm 58 

Hoadley, Bishop of Winchester 

»97, 2 37 
Hoadley, John . . . 237 
Hoadley, Samuel . . . 237 
Hockley, Jos. . .13, 15, 17 
Hockley, Jos., junr. 17, 182, 190, 201 
Hogarth, T 151 

Hogg (publisher) 
Hogsdesh, Thos. 
Holland, Jno. 
Holland, Rev. John 







Holmes, Oliver W. 
Holt, Geo. 
Honorius III. 
Hook, Jno. 
Hooke, Andrew 
Hooper, S. (engraver) 
Hope, W. St. John, Mr. 
Hopkyn, Thos. 
Horn, Mr. 
Horner, Hy. . 
Horsnaile, T. 
Houbraken (engraver) 
How, Jno. 
Humphrey, Mr. 
Hutton, Jas. . 
Hyll, Sir Thos. 

Irish, Daird 




Jackman, Alderman 
Jacob, P. W. . . 1 

James, Capt. . 
James I. 22, 40, 46, 83, 
James II. 19, 32, 62, 1 
Jamieson, Mrs. 
Janssens, Cornelis 
Jarlet, Rich. . 
Jeale, Rev. C. 
Jeffrey, Jno. . 
Jeffries, Jno. . 
Jeffson, John . 
Jekyll, Edward 
Jennings, Mr. 
Jerome, St. 
John, King 
John, St., the Divine 
John, St., Baptist 
Jonah, the Prophet 
Jones, Capt. 
Jonson, Ben. . 
Jordan, Mr. . 
Judges, Mr. E. A. 





157, 190 






. 151 
85, 186, 187 

. 147 
84, 144, 166 
22, 224, 228 

. 76 

. 158 
i3» l6 > 2 °3 

• 157 


6, 182, 188 

. 128 

. 206 

. 188 

• 73 
6, 140, 142 

128, 129 
128, 129 






Kensett, E. 
Kensington, Lord . 
Kent, Godwin, Earl of 
Kerry, Rev. C. 59, 73, 
Kettle, Jno. . 
Kidd, Benjamin 
Kidd, John 

Kidd, Richard 179, 

Killinghall, John 
Kingham, Mr. 
Kingsley, Family, The 
King, John . . 

King, William 
Kitchell, Robt. 

. 200 

, 197 

2, 146 





I, 182 



16, 17 


O, I. 


Laking, Guy J., Mr. . 227, 228 

Larkin, Jno. .... 95 
Laud, Wm., Archbishop of 

Lauderdale, Duke of 

Kean, Edmund 
Keene, Benjamin 
Kempe, Sir N. 

. 215 

190, 191 

151, 155, 161 

Laurence, F. 
Law, Mr. 
Lee, Ann 
Lee, Anthony 
Lee, Edw. 
Lee, John 
Lee, Henry 
Lee, Widow . 
Leete, Wm. 
Leggatt, Jno. . 
Leggatt, Mr. . 
Leicester, Dowager 
Leland, . 
Lely, Sir P. . 
Lemare, Mr. . 
Linfield, Henry 
Lintott, N. 
Leofpold (moneyer) 
Lockwood, Jno. 
Lockwood, Wm. 
Londesborough, Lord 
Long, Saml. 
Longfellow (poet) 
Lovejoy, Caleb 
Lovett, Timothy 
Lovett, T. 
Louis, Prince . 
Lucy, Mr. 

. 115 


i3 x > x 3 6 > *3 8 » l6 5 

. . 185 

. 170 

. 12, 14, 17 

49, 238 

169, 170 

. 50 

. . 156 

. 232 

i3> i4> *5, i7 

. 188 

Countess of 240 

• 73 
19, 20 
. 205 
. 13 

• 5o, 5 1 , 55 

14, 15, 16, 17 

. 13 

. 204 

. 188 

. 238 

122, 123 

• "3 

. 202 

142, 145, 208 

. 203 




Macdonald, Corporal 

Maiden, Mr. . 

Mallory, Sir T. 

Maits (carrier) 

Mandeville, Chas. 

Mangles, Jas. . 

Mangles, Mr. 

Manning & Bray 66, 79, 84, 93 


Manning, Cardinal 

Maratta, Carlo 

Margaret of France, Quee 

Marriage, C. C. 

Marriage, T. S. 

Marsh, T. W., Mr. 168,1 

Marsh, Thos. 

Marshall, Constable 

Marshall, D., Jr. 

Martin, Abdiah 

Martin, E. Waller 179, 1 

Martin, John . 

Martyr, Jno. 11, 18, 6j, 1 

Mary, Queen . 

Mason, Edward 

Mason, J. 

Matchwick Family, The 

Mathew, Dr. Cotton 

Matthews, Jno. 

Maunsel, Elias de . 

Maxwell, Elizabeth . 

Maxwell, James 

May, John 

Maynard, John 

McKenzie, D., Bishop of Zulu 

land . ... 104 

Meadows (actor) . . .215 

Merton, Robert ... 75 
Mildmay, Sir W. . . . 106 

Mildred, Robert . . . 175 

Miles, Mr 156 

Miller, Joe . . . . 135 

Mills, W 211 

Mills, Wm 14 

Moline, Robt. 179, 180, 181, 182 
Monmouth, Duke of . .150 

Monsell, Rev. Dr. . . .121 

Monsignori (painter) . . 118 

Montague, Viscount . 80, 82 

Montfort, Simon de . . 141 



3> Ho 



!3> l6 



7 1 , !74, 183 


52, 53 
82, 186, 201 

53, 54 
1, 189, 218 
20, 71, 82 




9 1 


Monynton, Nicholas . . 72 

More, Lady . . . .122 

More, Sir C. . . . .122 

More, Sir George . . .83 

More, Sir Wm. . 80, 90, 101, 122 
Morley, Bishop of Winchester . 127 

Morley, Henry . . .194 

Morris, Jas. . . . .13 

Moth, Hugh . . . .157 

Mounter, Jno. . . .95 

Mugge, Daniel . 75, 79 

Munster, Sebastian . . .151 
Murray, Baron ... 84 

Murray, Dr. . . . 1 10 

Murray, John . . . .83 

Musgrave, Lord Mayor . .197 


7, » 

Naish, Thos. . 
Nealds, Jno. 23, 59, 1 
Nealds, G. M. 
Neate's (innkeeper) 
Nesbit (actor) 
Nettles, Joseph 
Nevill, Mr. R. 
Newland, Wm. 
Newman, Thos. 
Nichalls, Thos 
Nichole, Jno. 
Nicholls, E. 
Noble, Rich. 
Norbrige, Hy. . 111, ] 
Norbrige, Alice 
Norfolk, Chas., Duke of 
Norfolk, Hy. Howard, Duke of 29, 30 
North, Francis, Lord Guildford 20 
North, B., Bishop of Winchester 197 
Northampton, Wm. Parr, Mar- 
quis of . . 82, 83, 97 
Northumberland, Duke of 82, 206 
Norton, Hon. Fletcher . .188 
Norton, Hon. G. C. 13, 189, 191, 192 
Norton, Thos. 
Nugent, Wm. 
Nye, Mr. 

. 231 
, 203, 225, 226 



55, 56 
8, 203 
. 50 
. 183 
38, 210 

13, M, 15 


2, 115, 221 

. 221 




Oliver, John 
Onslow, R. 

. 189 
18, 22 




Onslow, Earl ot . . .86 

Onslow, Rt. Hon. Arthur 18, 22, 30, 

31, 87, 104, 108, 116 

Onslow, Col 203 

Onslow, Guildford . . . 205 

Onslow, Hon. Thos. 87, 188, 191, 192 
Onslow, Sir Richard 57, 87, 127 

Onslow, Richard, Lord . . 87 

Onslow, George, Earl of 79, 86, 151, 

Orger, Mr 215 

Otho, Sir A. Fitz ... 70 

Palmer, Rev. Father 6j t 68, 74, 134, 

Palmer, Jno. . 

Palmer, Mr. P. 

Passinger, Thos. 

Pannell, Jno. . 

Parvish, John . 

Parvish, Ann . 

Parvish, Saml. 

Parker, J. H. . 

Parkhurst, Robert, Lord Mayor 

Parkhurst, C. . 

Parkhurst, N. . 

Parkhurst, Sir R. 

Parkhurst, Lady 

Parkhurst, Bishop 

i3> *4> i5> l6 » 17 

• 179 
. 98 
160, 163 
32, 46, 103, 104, 
105, 107 

Parry, Mr 165 

Parson, Hy. . . . -57 

Parsons, Wm. . . .188 

Peak, Mr. Hy. . . . 144 

Pearson, John . . .186 

Pearson, Very Rev. H. N. . 208 
Peche, Mr. . . . 188, 192 

Peirson, C. J 183 

Peter, Bishop of Winchester . 66 
Penfold, Widow . . .169 

Penfold, John . . . 179 

Penn, Wm. . . 172, 173, 174 
Pepys, Samuel . . .215 

Percy, Earl .... 206 
Perkins, Mr. . . . 19 

Peto,Wm 178 

Petrie, Mr. J. H. . . . 19 
Pickett, P 13 

Pickstone, Mr 

Piggott, A. 

Piggott, Thos. 

Piggott, Dr. E 

Piggott, F. . 16, 20 1 j 

Pimm, Mr. 


Piper, Hy. 

Plaisto, Mr. 

Pollen, Admiral 

Polsted, Henry 

Polsted, Thos. 

Polsted, Margaret 

Polsted, Agnes 

Powell, Mr. Herbert 

Prel, Monsieur 

Pritchard, E. . 

Pritchard, J. . 

Prosser, H. (artist) 

Puile, T. de la 

Pyne, C. C. . 



. 188 
I92, 205 

• «3 


202, 208 

. 201 

. 16 

• 13 
. 188 
. 151 
81, 96 

11, 92, 96 
. 91 

• 9 1 

108, 109 
. 203 
. 178 
. 180 

137, 138 


138, 164 


Rand, Jno. 
Randyll, M. . 
Reed, Goodman 
Reeves, Edwin 
Remnant, Jno. 
Remnant, Jane 
Rendle, Dr. . 
Richard II. . 

12, 16 


. . 156 

. 186 

. 152 
55, 171, 178 
. . 56 

. 123 

H3> H5> "4 

Richardson, Jonathan 
Richmond, Margaret, Countess 

of . . . .112 

Rickman, Mr. . . .183 

Riley, John .... 20 

Rideal, E. J 165 

Robinson, John . . .183 

Robinson, Joseph . . .183 

Robinson, Saml. . . .157 

Rossini (art writer) . . .118 

Rud, Rich. .... 90 
Rudham, Rich, de . . . 71 

Russell, John, R.A. 22, 151, 158, 163, 

164, 221 

Russell Family, The 55, 87, 88, 131, 

I 3*» I 33» H8, 158, 160, 164, 

165,203,204,207,211, 212 



Russell, Wm. . 
Russell, John . 
Russell, Jno. 120, 121, 

Russell, Sam. . . 
Russell, Geo. . . 
Russell, Thos. 160, 
Russell, Jno., Junior 

Russell, Ann . 
Russell, Elizabeth . 
Russell, Katharine . 
Russell, Wm. Jr. 162, 
Russell, Misses . 

Russell, George 
Russell, Wm. . 
Rymer (historian) . 
Ryvell, Robert 

Sackville, Andrew 
Saker, S. 

Salmon (historian) 
Salsbury, Messrs. 
Salvin, Capt. . 
Sands, Thos. . 
Sarlle, Dan. 
Saunders, Hy. 
Scott, Job 
Seaman, Thos. 
Sebastian, St. . 
Sells, Mr. 
Semer, P. 
Seric (moneyer) 
Seward, Messrs. 
Sey, Wm. de . 
Shaw, Saml. 
Sharpe, Marianne 
Sholl, S. A. . 
Shrubb, John . 
Shury (engraver) 
Sibthorpe, John 
Sibthorpe, Mr. 
Sidney, Algernon 
Skene, Prof. . 
Slater, W. H. . 
Smallpeice, G. S. 
Smallpeice, Thos. 


• !3 
. . 87 

160, 161, 163, 
188, 202 

157, 160, 188 
. . 158 

161, 162, 164 

162, 163, 164 
. 162 
. 162 

164, 165, 188 

163, 165 

164, 202 
. 192 

• 134 
. 90 


I3 1 






1 1 


i74> 175 

16, 17 



Smallpeice, Jno. 14, 15, 16, 17, 54, 
5 6 > 58,59, 170, 2" 


3> *4, i5» 

Smallpeice, Wm. 
Smart, Jas. 
Smith, Dr. 
Smith, Hy. 
Smith, John . 
Smith, Robert 
Smith, Stephen 
Smith, T. 
Smith, Thos. . 
Sneawine (moneyer) 
Snelling, Hy. . 
Snelling, Jas. . 
Snelling, John 
Snelling, Thos. 
Sparkes (farmer) 
Sparkes, Mr. . 
Sparkes, Wm. 
Speed (historian) 
Spencer, Jupp & Co 
Spershott, W. 
Sprent, Geo. 
Spurgeon, Rev. C. H. 
Stawfford, Philip 
Stoughton, Gilbert 
Stoughton, Rob. de 
Stanhope, Sir M. 
Stares, Mr. 
Stark, John 
Stedman, Elizabeth 
Stedman, J. 
Stedman, Jas. . 
Stedman, Thos. 
Steer, Jas. 
Steere, Mr. 
Stent & Sons . 
Stent, W. 
Stevens, Geo. . 
Stevens, Wm. 
Stoughton, Hy. 
Stovold, Jas. . 
Strudwick, W. 
Sturt, Mr. 
Sumner, George 
Sunderland, The Earl of 
Sweetaple, John 
Symmes, Richard 
Sylvester, John 




l 7S 

7Vi73< *74 





59, 60, 178 





12, 15 










203, 211 
12, 15 

• 71 
. 200 

• 52 

200, 202 

. 186 


• 157 

• *3 

200, 202 

189, 191, 192 
11 1 



Taillor, Robert 
Tally, Simon . 
Tangley, Rich, de . 
Tanner (historian) . 
Taunton, Messrs. . 
Taunton, Thos. 
Taylor, Wm. . 
Tenoues, Rob. 
Terry, John . 
Terry, Mr. 
Terry, Thos. . 
Testard, R. . 
Testard, Wm. 
Thayres, Abraham . 
Thomas, Prince 
Thompson, J. R. (artist) 
Tickner, Mr. . 
Tisberry, Wm. 
Titley, Constable . 
Toft, Mary . 
Tompson, Thos. 
Trelawney, Bishop of Wi 

ter . 
Trottesworth, Jno. de 
Trumbull, J. H. . 
Turner, J. E. . 
Turner, Mr. Thackeray 
Tydman, Thos. 
Tyler, Wat . 


Upperton, E. W. 
Upton, Edward 
Urban II. 
Urban III. 
Urban VI. 

Valpy, Rev. A. S. 

Valpy, Richard 

Vanner, Thos. 

Van Somer, Paul 
1 Venables, Jno. 

Verrall and Son 
' Victoria, Queen 
' Vincent, Edmund 
' Vincent, Thos. 






*3> *4> 15 
i3> H 

• 7i 
. 18 
. 188 
. 158 



. 208 

• 69 
138, 165 

. 188 

. 60 

. 186 


60, 61, 178 






*3 2 





104, 163, 222 
104, 163 

14, 15 
151, 158 

• 7i 
. 88 

182, 191, 200 

• *3 



Wakeford, Mr. . . .188 
Wales, Prince of . .185 

Walford, Cornelius . . 195, 196 

Walker, Isaac . . . .165 

Wall, C. B. . 201, 202, 204 

Wallace, Michael . . -157 

Waller, Jesse . . . 179, 182 

Waller, Mr. J. G. . 128, 129, 130 
Walpole, Horace . . .129 

Ware, Rev. H. R. 3, 124, 125, 126 
Warrenne, De, Earl of Surrey . 123 
Warting, Elijah . . .178 

Waugh, Geo. . . 12, 14, 15, 17 
Wauncey, Richard de . .210 
Waynflete, Wm. of. . .197 

Weale, Hy 187 

Weale, Jos. . . . 14, 15 

Weaver, Jno. . . . 13, 16 

Webb, John . . . .112 

Wells, Jesse . . . 174 

Wenham, Miss . . .188 

West, Constable . . .186 

West, Goodman . . 155, 156 

West, John . . . . 153 

Weston Family, The 112, 113, 116 
Westpurle, Jno. de . 
Whitburn, Mr. . 20, 

Whitburn, Mr. 
White, Geo. L. 
White, R. 

Whitfield, Hy., Rev. 
Whitfield, John 
Whitgift, Archbishop 
Whiting, Jno. 
Whittier, J. G. 
Wibden, Jno. . 
Wickes, Stephen 
WicklirT, John 
Wight, Jno. . 
Wilberforce, S., Bishop of 

Chester . . . .114 

Wilkins, Jas. ... 13, 16 

Wilkins, Messrs. . . .211 

Willes, Mr 188 

Willis (poet) . . . .238 

William I. . 6, 38, 44, 45, 124 

William II. . . . 6, 42, 44 

William III. . . 20, 62, 127, 147 

William, Fitz William . . 74 

2, 113, 

2, 151, 


23 2 » 






14, iS 

168, 171, 176 
. 151 
. 18 





William of Florence 

129, 130 

Woods, Ephraim 

William of Westminster . 

. 130 

Woods, John . 

Williams, Lord Keeper 

. 150 

Woods, Thos. . 

Williams, Roger 

• 173 

Woodyer, Dr. C. 

Williams, Thos. 

13, 14, 16 

Woodyer, Hy. 

Williamson, G. C. . 

. 164 

Worde, Wynkyn de 

Wilmot, Thos. 

61, 62 

Wulfsig (moneyer) 

Wilson . 

16, 17 

Wright, Rich. 

Wilson, Rev. J. 

• 237, 240 

Wrockling, Thos. 

Winchester, Bishop of 

• 97 

Wyley, Joan . 

Wintershill, Thos. de 

. 72 

Wyley, Jno. . 

Wise, Mr. 

. 188, 218 

Wyse, John . 

Witham, Mr. P. . 

. 112 

Witherley, Chas. 

. 200 


Wodeland, Wm. 

1 1 

Yardley, Jasper 

Wollesy, Mr. . 

. 80 

Yates (actor) . 

Wonersh, Jno. de 

. 72 

Yeman, John . 

Woods, Caleb . 

. 175, 176 

York, Duke of 



• 157 

75, 176 

75, 176 
















Aghado . 

. 72 


44, 55, 

71, 109,237 

Alexandria . , 

• 173 



. 23 


. 141, I44 



66, 104, 223 

America . 

. 23 

Carlisle . 

. 223 

Anglesey, Isle of 

. 62 


.- 223 

Appleby . 

. 223 



1,67, 68, 134 

Apulia . 

. Il8 


. 152 

Argaeus, Mount 

. 119 


• 159, 231 

Armagh . 

• 237 


. 66 


. II9 

Chester . 

• 223, 229 

Astolat . 

. I46 

Clandon . 

44, 210, 231 
160, 164 





. 223,229 

Bangor . 

. 237 


. 80 

Basingstoke . , 

• 135 

Croydon Palace 

. . 158 


. . 63 




Beckhampton . , 

. 166 


. . 158 

Berwick . . , 

. I99 


. 182 

Berytus . 




• "7*i l8 3 

Bologna . 

1^2, 220 


. 143 

Bolton . 

. IO7 


. 199 

Boston . 

• 197 

Durham . 

. 128 

Bramley . 

, . I78, 206 

Bramshill Park 

. I49 



. 23 




. 66 

Egypt . 

. 118 

Bridley . 

. 70 


. 198 

Brighton . 

9, 125, 205, 211 

Epsom . 

. 220 

Brindisi . 



. 141 

Bristol . 

198, 223, 229 



66, 104, 223 

British Museum 

. 136 

Bromley . 

94, 96 



. 70 

Farnham . 14 

'i * 


174, 195, l 97 

Burford . 



. 68 


. 72 


. 129, 130 

Burstow . 

. 152 

Florida . 

• 232 


. 223 

France . 

• 27 



Gascony .... 

Gatwick .... 

Genoa .... 


Godalming 117, 168, 175, 

Grantham . . 
Grantley Hall . 


5, 146 

. Il8 

223, 229 
I78, 179, 



Guilford, Conn. 230, 231, 232, 233, 

234, 235> 2 3 6 > 2 37, 2 38, 
239, 240 
Guilford, East . 


Havant . . 
Hedingham . 
Hedon . 

Horsemonger Lane 

Ipswich . 
Ireland . 


. 166 

. 162 

25, 27 

107, 223, 229 

82, 223, 237 

. 186 

99, 100, 182 

197, 223, 229 

44, 66 
6, 238 

• 135 


Kendal 223 

Kent 146 

Kingston-on-Thames ic, 36, 37, 172, 
173, 220, 230 

Lambeth Palace 



. 158 




. 223 

Lichfield . 



165, 182 
. 223 

Lincoln . . 



223, 229 

Lincoln College 



. 150 
. 211 




. 223 

London 28, 32, 33, 44, 64, 66 y 90, 
104, 114, 115, 116, 123, 

124, i35, i5 6 » J 59, l6 5> 
197, 210, 211, 221, 223, 


Loseley . . 
Lumley Castle 


Madrid . 
Meath . 
Merrow . 
Merton, Priory of 
Mexico . . 

Milford . 


97, 122 

. 19 

. 228 

. 72 

Il6, 155, 2l6 

. 4, 68, m 

. .232 

. 232 

196, 198 


196, 198, 223, 229 



82, 83, 97 


New England 


New York 

New Zealand 

Norfolk . 



Norwich 32, 66, 102, 104, 105, 106 

Nottingham .... 43 


Ockley . 

. . 

. 231 

Orange . 


• 147 

Osma . 


. 66 

Oxford . 5 5 

, 66, 71, 

"7, 135, *59> 
211, 220, 237 

Paternoster Row 

• *35 


. . 

. 198 

Poitou . 

. . 

5, 146 


. . 

. 210 

Poyle, Manor 

of . 

• 4, 5 


. . 

67, 68, 118 



• 59, 73, 75 

Ragusa . 

. 118 

Reigate . 

142, 220 


. 16 


68, 220 


66, 134 












5, 208, 223, 237, 



• 134 


Wanborough . 


• 179 


. 173 



. 66 

Scotland . 

. 238 

Waverley Abbey 



'» 6 7, 135 

Sebaste . 

119, 120 

Way, The Pilgrims' 



. 150 



. 166 

Shalford . 

65, 112, 179 




!3o, 159 


. 175, 176 



. 182 


. 223, 229 

Wey River 


. 1,84 


. 119 

Wigan . 


. 223 


• J 35 

Wight, Isle of. 




. 210 

Wiley, River . 






9*> 93, I2 3, 176 

Wilton . 


. 44 

St. Davids 


Wimborne . 


. 107 

Steyning . 

• 175 

Winchester 6, 25, 36, 

38, 66, 73, 97, 



102, 1 

03, " 

04, 127, 197, 

Strand, The 

• • 135 




27, 28 


. 68 


• 237 

Witley . 

• 175 


. 198 


. 84 

Suffolk . 

. 8, 79 

Woking . . 

• 70 

Sutton Place 

112) 113, Il6 

Wonersh . 

72, 179 

Sweden . 

. 44 



223, 229 


. 173 



*73, 175 



Worplesdon 172, 173, 


176, 179 

Thetford . 


44, 66, 223 




. • 165 




197, 223 



. 107 

York . 



226, 229 

Turton . 


. 107 




. 104 

Verona . 



. 118 

Zurich . 


. 46 

The Woodbridge Press, Ltd., Printers, Guildford. 


Dedicated by special permission to Her Most Gracious Majesty 
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George C. Williamson, Litt.D. In Two Vols., Imperial 4to., Ten 
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This ' History of Portrait Miniatures' is the most comprehensive and 
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Painters. Their Lives and their Works. Sumptuously illustrated 
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THE ANONIMO MORELLIANO. Notes made in the six- 
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PORTRAIT MINIATURES. A Handbook for Collectors. With 
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GEORGE ENGLEHEART, 1752-1829, Miniature Painter to 
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LIFE OF JOHN RUSSELL, R.A., Portrait Painter. 

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Williamson, George Charles 
Guilford in the olden time